Multi core architecture

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Nabendu Karmakar

The revolution of computer system has moved up enormously. From the age of heavy handed bulky computers today we have moved to thinnest notebooks. From the age of 4 bit Intel 4004 processors, we have moved up to Intel Core i7 extremes. From the first computer named as ENIAC, we now have palmtops. There have been a lot of changes in theway of computing. Machines have upgraded, we have moved to multi core processors from the single core processors. Single core processors, who served the computing generation for quite a long time is now vanishing. It’s the Multi-core CPUs that are in charge. With lots of new functionality, great features, new up gradation Multi-core processors are surely the future product.

Nabendu Karmakar Contents

1. Computers & Processors 1.1 Processors 2. A brief history of Microprocessor 2.1 Moore’s Law 3. Single Core Processor: A step behind 4. Past efforts to increase efficiency 5. Need of Multi-core CPU 6. Terminology 7. Multi-core Basics 8. Multi-core implementation 8.1 Intel & AMD Dual Core Processor 8.2 The CELL Processor 8.3 Tilera TILE64 9. Scalability potential of Multi-coreprocessors 10. Multi-core Challenges 10.1 Power & Temperature 10.2 Cache Coherence 10.3 Multithreading 11. Open issues 11.1 Improved Memory Management

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Nabendu Karmakar

11.2 System Bus and Interconnection Networks 11.3 Parallel Programming 11.4 Starvation 11.5 Homogenous vs. Heterogonous Core 12. Multi-Core Advantages 12.1 Power andcooling advantages of multicore processors 12.2 Significance of sockets in a multicore architecture 12.3 Evolution of software toward multicore technology 13. Licensing Consideration 14. Single Core vs. Multi Core 15. Commercial Incentives 16. Last Words 17. References Used

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Nabendu Karmakar

Multi-core Architecture


1. Computers & Processors:Computers are machines that perform tasks or calculations according to a set of instructions, or programs. The first fully electronic computer ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) introduced in the 1946s was a huge machine that required teams of people to operate. Compared to those early machines, today's computers are amazing. Not only are they thousands of times faster, theycan fit on our desk, on our lap, or even in our pocket. Computers work through an interaction of hardware and software. Hardware refers to the parts of a computer that we can see and touch, including the case and everything inside it. The most important piece of hardware is a tiny rectangular chip inside our computer called the central processing unit (CPU), or microprocessor. It's the "brain" ofyour computer— the part that translates instructions and performs calculations. Hardware items such as your monitor, keyboard, mouse, printer, and other components are often called hardware devices, or devices. Software refers to the instructions, or programs, that tell the hardware what to do. A wordprocessing program that you can use to write letters on your computer is a type of software. Theoperating system (OS) is software that manages your computer and the devices connected to it. Windows is a well-known operating system.

The data in the instruction tells the processor what to do. The instructions are very basic things like reading data from memory or sending data to the user display, but they are processed so rapidly that we experience the results as the smooth operation of aprogram. Processors

Nabendu Karmakar

1.1 Processors: Processors are said to be the brain of a computer system which tells the entire system what to do and what not to. It is made up of large number of transistors typically integrated onto a single die. In computing, a processor is the unit that reads and executes program instructions, which are fixed-length (typically 32 or 64 bit) or...