The Independence of Mexico was the result of a political and social process solved by the use of weapons that ended Spanish rule in theterritories of New Spain. The Mexican war for independence lasted from Grito de Dolores, the September 16, 1810, pending the entry of the Army Trigarante to Mexico City on 27 September 1821.
The Mexicanindependence movement is set in the Enlightenment and the liberal revolutions of the late eighteenth century. By that time, the educated elite began to think about Spain's relations with its colonies.Changes in social and political structure resulting from the Bourbon reforms, which was compounded by a deep economic crisis in New Spain, also generated unease among some segments of the population.The French occupation of the metropolis in New Spain in 1808 triggered a political crisis that led to the armed movement. In that year, King Charles IV and Ferdinand VII abdicated successively forNapoleon Bonaparte, who left the crown of Spain to his brother Joseph Bonaparte. In response, the City of Mexico, with support from the Viceroy José de Iturrigaray-claimed sovereignty in the absence ofthe legitimate king, the reaction led to a coup against the Viceroy and carried to jail the leaders of the movement.
Despite the defeat of the natives in Mexico City in 1808, in other cities in NewSpain gathered small groups of conspirators who tried to follow in the footsteps of the City of Mexico. Such was the case against the conspiracy of Valladolid, discovered in 1809 and whoseparticipants were put in prison. In 1810, the conspirators of Queretaro were about to suffer the same fate but, to be discovered, opted to take up arms on September 16 in the company of indigenous people andpeasants from the village of Dolores (Guanajuato), convened by the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.
Since 1810, the independence movement passed through several stages, as successive leaders were...