Parts of speach

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The study of grammatical categories or linguistic units that have both morphological and syntactic properties.

The set of rules that govern linguistic units whose properties are definable by both morphological and syntactic criteria.


The study of the structure and form of words in language or a language, including inflection, derivation, and theformation of compounds.

A branch of linguistics that studies and describes patterns of word formation, including inflection, derivation, and compounding of a language.


The study of the rules whereby words or other elements of sentence structure are combined to form grammatical sentences.

The pattern of formation of sentences or phrases in a language.
UNIT 1: Parts of Speech

Thereare eight major groups of words classified according to the jobs they perform. These groups are called the parts of speech and include nouns, pronouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, prepositions, conjunctions, and interjections.

There are three other groups of words called verbals that perform many of the same jobs performed by the parts of speech. These words are made from verbs and are calledinfinitives, participles, and gerunds.

Unit 1 describes and provides information to help analyze the eight parts of speech and the verbals.

1.1. Nouns

1 Definition

We use certain words in the language called nouns as labels or naming words. These nouns identify people, places, and things.

A noun is the name of a person, place, or thing.

‘Things’ can be visual itemssuch as clothes, trees, and chairs. ‘Things’ may also be items that we perceive with our senses: smells, sounds, tastes. ‘Things’ also include ideas such as beliefs, theories, and emotions that exist inside people’s minds.

Table 1: Examples of nouns
|People |Places |Things |Ideas |
|Matt Dillon|Guadalajara |Baseball |love |
|friend |Country |Speaker |charity |
|priest |Restaurant |Prayer |democracy |

Nouns canbe recognized by their form and their position in the sentence as well as by their naming or labeling function.

In order to identify nouns in a sentence, look for these things.
1. Most nouns can follow the word the or other determiners such as my, a, this.
2. All nouns can occur before and after verbs.
3. All nouns can follow relationship words called prepositions.
4. Manynouns can take an s or an es at the end of the word to form the plurals and express the idea of more than one.
5. Some nouns can take an apostrophe and an s or an apostrophe by itself to express belonging.
6. Some nouns can start with a capital letter to indicate the name or the title of some specific thing or person. These are called proper nouns.
7. Some nouns have endings such as–ness, -tion, -ity, whose function is to indicate that the word is a noun.

2 Common vs. proper nouns

A common noun is the name of a whole group of people, places, things, or ideas. It is a name that is common to an entire group, for example: animal, dish, apple, tent.

A proper noun is the name or title of an individual person, place, or thing. It always begins with a capital letter. Amongother things, proper nouns name for example: people, continents, countries, provinces, states, geographic regions, days of the week, months of the year, holidays and festivals but not seasons.

Table 2: Common & proper nouns
|Common Nouns |Proper Nouns |
|dancer |Rudolf Nureyev...
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