Chapter 2 “Americans and Iberians on the Eve of Contact” from the book Latin America and Its People by Cheryl E. Martin and Mark Wasserman
SOCIETY, DEVELOPMENT AND CITIZENSHIP IN MEXICO
PROFESSOR: RAOUL GODINEZ RAMOS
HORARY: 16+/3 TuThu
ADRIÁN MARTÍNEZ KURI A00618574
MARIA ELENA GALLEGOSCABALLERO A01137249
KAREN LILIANA ELIZONDO A01190267
MONTERREY, NUEVO LEON, SEPTEMBER, 10th., 2012.
Our proposed aims when developing the subject of Americans and Iberians, is basically to be able to distinguish the reality of what is and the myths that have been created throughout time. Our goal is also to describe the reality of the differentand abundant civilizations during the time, as well as the relation that this has with our present day.
ANALYSIS AND EXPOSITION
The main characteristics of this civilization, which extended from Ecuador and Colombia to Bolivia, Argentina and Chile, may be somewhere similar to those located in what is now Mexico. This group had its capital in Cuzco, and began extending its empire withthe Quechua-speaking Incas.
Their dominion started by their persuading of other chiefs of lands to submit, or otherwise they would execute them. They dominated by offering women, gifts and positions or by waging war. They also made use of warrior from previously conquered provinces and divisions among the area people.
Although they never really achieved a cultural homogeneity, they made a welluse of their consolidated power by moving people into the capital city.
They had the most superior last transportation network, allowing them to communicate throughout the dominated areas. The base for their society was the sense of reciprocal obligations they has, in which the services are mutual, meaning that the people will serve for the emperor, and the emperor will protect them.
Like theAztecs, we can see how the Incas made use of several traditions and history to increase their hegemony. As mentioned in chapter read, the adlas were young virgins owned by the state, used to serve the Incas. Some were brides of the Sun god, and had to be sacrificed, as Tanta Carhua who was buried alive. This was practically a way of reinforcing social alliances within the Inca Empire; families wererewarded with stronger alliances with empire. Sacrifice= capa hucha, symbolize Cuzco's dominance.
Another way of consolidating their importance as rulers was to sacrifice children whenever a king died and his successor took over. The sacrifice of enemy warriors marked the celebration of important military victories.
Through religion, they had the famous Pantheon, which is the home ofspiritual gods and spirits. But how exactly does this gives them power? Well, Inca rulers were thought to be direct descendants from deities.
We can compare the Incas and the Aztecs by saying that both of them used a military conquest for their expansion, the both took local rulers and made distinctions between classes more clear. The both empires used history and human sacrifices to impose, as well assoldiers and temples.
While development took place the Americas and Incas and Aztecs built their empires a similar process was taking place in the Iberian Peninsula. Different societies conquered territories in what is now known as Spain and Portugal, setting in and creating a diverse society when these countries were finally created. This process took hundreds of years, starting withthe Phoenicians who established Cadiz between 800 and 1100 BCE. Then the Greeks came in the 600 BCE, followed by the Carthagenians who established Cartagena. Later the Romans conquered these territories, driving out the Cartagenians. After the Roman Empire came to an end by the fifth century Germanic people, like Vandals and Visigoths began setting up in Iberia. Finally Muslims entered the Iberian...