Preparation for civil war

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Chapter 23
England: Preparation for Civil War

Introduction

In England the right to resist had become attached to the idea that political power resides in the people, the duty of passiveobedience was attached to the theory of monarchical divine right. Bodin’s republic had given a fair approximation to a theory of a constitutional unity under the crown.
The political ambitions of thevarious churches obscured and concealed the serious economic dislocation that attended the rise of modern trade and the destruction of the older economy.
“The older stratum of thought may be seen insuch a pre-reformation work as Sir Thomas More’s political satire, the Utopia; Utopia really expressed it’s author’s dislike of an acquisitive society in which it was becoming good morals to “buyabroad very cheap and sell again exceeding dear.” (Sabine, G. 1961. page 404).

Chapter 23
England: Preparation for Civil War

More`s conception of what was socially right was derived professedlyfrom Plato’s analysis of society into a system of cooperating classes, but perhaps more truly from the assumed validity of this conception in most of the social theory of the Middle Ages.
By the endof the sixteenth century the old conception had become strikingly incoherent; all parties were inclined to rely upon untenable compromises which had to be given up when various claims, reallyincompatible were pushed.
The main regions of stress were two; in first place the old questions of the church and secular government and in second place there was the question of the centralization of powerand its incidence upon the supposedly cooperative relation between the various parts of government.
The controversy about the royal headship of the church produced one treatise of lastingimportance, the laws of ecclesiastical polity by Richard Hooker.
“The main object of Hookers argument was to show that the puritans, in refusing obedience to the established church, were implicitly denying...
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