Progamacion hibrida

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1. Overview
What is a microcomputer system made up of? A microcomputer system is made up of a microprocessor unit (MPU), a bus system, a memory subsystem, an I/O subsystem and an interface among all components. A typical answer one can expect.
This is only the hardware side. Every microcomputer system requires a software so as to direct each of the hardware components while they are performingtheir respective tasks. Computer software can be thought about at system side (system software) and user side (user software).
The user software may include some in-built libraries and user created libraries in the form of subroutines which may be needed in preparing programs for execution.
The system software may encompass a variety of high-level language translators, an assembler, a texteditor, and several other programs for aiding in the preparation of other programs. We already know that there are three levels of programming and they are Machine language, Assembly language and High-level language.
Machine language programs are programs that the computer can understand and execute directly (think of programming in any microprocessor kit). Assembler language instructions matchmachine language instructions on a more or less one-for-one basis, but are written using character strings so that they are more easily understood, and high-level language instructions are much closer to the English language and are structured so that they naturally correspond to the way programmers think. Ultimately, an assembler language or high-level language program must be converted into machinelanguage by programs called translators. They are referred to as assembler and compiler or interpreter respectively.
Compilers for high-level languages like C/C++ have the ability to translate high-level language into assembly code. The GNU C and C++ Compiler option of -S will generate an assembly code equivalent to that of the corresponding source program. Knowing how the most rudimentaryconstructs like loops, function calls and variable declaration are mapped into assembly language is one way to achieve the goal of mastering C internals. Before proceeding further, you must make it a point that you are familiar with Computer Architecture and Intel x86 assembly language to help you follow the material presented here.
2. Getting Started
To begin with, write a small program in C to printhello world and compile it with -S options. The output is an assembler code for the input file specified. By default, GCC makes the assembler file name by replacing the suffix `.c', with `.s'. Try to interpret the few lines at the end of the assembler file.
The 80386 and above family of processors have myriads of registers, instructions and addressing modes. A basic knowledge about only a fewsimple instructions is sufficient to understand the code generated by the GNU compiler.
Generally, any assembly language instruction includes a label, a mnemonic, and operands. An operand's notation is sufficient to decipher the operand's addressing mode. The mnemonics operate on the information contained in the operands. In fact, assembly language instructions operate on registers and memorylocations. The 80386 family has general purpose registers (32 bit) called eax, ebx,ecx etc. Two registers, ebp and esp are used for manipulating the stack. A typical instruction, written in GNU Assembler (GAS) syntax, would look like this:
movl $10, %eax
This instruction stores the value 10 in the eax register. The prefix `%' to the register name and `$' to the immediate value are essential assemblersyntax. It is to be noted that not all assemblers follow the same syntax.
Our first assembly language program, stored in a file named first.s is shown in Listing 1.
#Listing 1
.globl main
main:
movl $20, %eax
ret
This file can be assembled and linked to generate an a.out by giving the command cc first.s. The extensions `.s' are identified by the GNU compiler front end cc as assembly...
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