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1. Make a summary of Piaget´s Theory of Cognitive Development.
The Swiss psychologist described how humans do for having sense of their words picking up and organizing information. His ideas talk about thought development since childhood until adulthood. Thoughts are different according the age. Children can confuse the past with thefuture. Our thought processes changes and it is more than the addition of new thoughts to the already existent. The factors of Piaget are: biological maturation, activity, social experiences and balance. In the maturation biological changes are presented. Parents influence little in this process except in nutrition and care. In the Activity it increases the ability to be unwrapped in theenvironment organizing the information. In the social experience, we socialize with people who is s around us, because we acquire the knowledge through them, on the other hand, we would have to reinvent our knowledge.
The basic tendencies in the thought are: Organization and Adaptation. The blocks that constitute the thought are the outlines that are the organized systems of thought which representthe objects and events in our world. In Adaptation people spread to adapt to their environment by means of assimilation and accommodation. In Assimilation, new outlines or thoughts are already added to existent being able to distort these thoughts. In accommodation, the existent thoughts should be changed to understand a new situation. The equilibration is the act of searching forbalance. The balance exists when we apply a particular thought or outline to a situation making that the outline works and the imbalance is presented when satisfactory results are not presented.
Regarding four phases of cognitive development, Piaget thought each person presented the four same phases in the same order, but these stages generally are associated with specify ages. In the Childhood,the stage sensorimotor is presented (0-2 years). This stage is characterized because the boy needs to see, hear, move, play, prove, etc. to form a thought. Infants develop object permanence that is the understanding objects exist in the environment if they are or not perceived involving the senses and motor activities. They begin to make use of imitation, memory and thought. ThePreoperational stage (2-7 years), gradually it developes the use of language and ability to think about symbolic form and it presents problems to give opinions about other people. The Concrete Operational (7-11 years), is capable to solve problems in a logical way, it understands the conservation laws and it is capable to classify. Formal Operational (11-adult). They are capable to solve abstractproblems and in a logical way and they develop social topics.
The first three phases, are product of practice, the fourth phase takes place due to the relationship between mature people. Formal operational is used when people use the reasoning that goes beyond a simple memorization like the case of students that use the memorization to learn formulates or to realize some exam. Neo-Piagetiantheories tries about the construction of children´s knowledge and the general tendencies in the thought of them but add findings from information processing about the role of attention, memory and strategies. Some psychologists don't agree totally with four phases suggested because one of problems is the lack of consistency in the children´s thought. Another problem is the idea of separatingstages, because process can be more continuous it seems.
2. Explain Vygotsky`s Sociocultural Perspective.
It tries about today psychologists recognizes the cognitive development according culture determining what and how the children will learn about the world. The Piaget´s theory is not necessarily natural for all children because some reflect the expectations and activities of oriental...
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