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The School of Psychoanalysis

Group Members:
Gissela Castellanos
Alberto Hernández
Daniel Márquez
Nelson Díaz


Gabriela Ramos

10th Grade Section “A”

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The School of Psychoanalysis,founded by Sigmund Freud, is a psychological theory which was developed at late 1800s and early 1900s. This theory criticized, expanded, and developed in different directions due to Freud’s former students.

Some of the basic views of the school of Psychoanalysis are as they follow:
* The human behavior and thinking are determined mostly by irrational drives, or impulses.
* These drivesare mostly unconscious.
* Trying to make conscious these impulses may take to different forms of defense or resistance.
* Even though inherited traits also affect, a subject’s development is determined by events occurred in early childhood.
* Some conflicts between the conscious view of reality and unconscious (repressed) material may cause mental problems as depression, anxiety,neurosis, etc.
* The liberation of this state of unconsciousness may be achieved by making it come out to consciousness, as by skilled guidance.

Based on Psychoanalysis there are at least 22 different theoretical orientations or ideas about human mental development. Therefore their treatments vary according to the ideals.

The most known way of psychoanalysis is the treatment in which the“analysand”, person who is analyzed, talks about his or her dreams, fears, illusions, wishes, thoughts, etc., and the analyst induces from them the unconscious conflicts the patient is passing by. From there, the analyst interprets these problems and searches for a way in which the patient may find a resolution for the conflict or conflicts, given the case.

Most of the interventions of analysts includethe confrontation and clarification of the patient’s wishes, defenses, and guilt. Through this analysis, psychoanalytic treatment may formulate a hypothesis on how patients are their own enemies, and also the worst, as they may conclude on how the different unconscious reactions may cause symptoms.


Sigmund Freud brought the idea of Psychoanalysis to its full prominence, but beforehim, various theories concerning to Psychoanalysis were created. Even though, Freud became aware of the existence of different mental processes which were made unconsciously by children he treated at the Children’s Hospital in Vienna. He noticed that many of the symptoms in the children were not produced by organic causes.

He made different studies in Paris along with Jean-Martin Charcot, whogot interested in the general Paresis, a neuropsychiatric disorder that affects the brain and the central nervous system. Freud’s first theory about hysterical symptoms was published in Studies in Hysteria, which presented the idea that due to hysterical roots, distressing memories were repressed, having sexual associations. At this time he also wanted to develop a theory about unconscious mentalmechanisms.

After so he published his Seduction Theory which said that sexual excitation in childhood was the precondition for these hysterical issues. Several of his patients reported sexual abuse in their childhood; therefore Freud argued that his findings gave evidence of the existence of unconscious fantasies, created to supposedly cover memories of early masturbation.

In early 1900sSigmund Freud speculated that every dream has its own meaning, especially for the dreamer. There, Freud created his second theory which states that the unconscious is a primary process that consists in symbolic and condensed thoughts, as it is a secondary process consisting in logical, conscious thoughts. He called this theory The Topographic Theory.

This theory explained the idea that due...
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