Ciliates Dinoflagellates Foraminiferans Plasmodium
Golden Algae Brown Algae Diatoms Water Molds
Green Algae Land Plants
Euglena Cryptomonads Many more...
Prasinophytes ChlorophyceaeTrebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorokybales Klebsormidiales Zygnematales Mesostigma viride
Land Plants and close relatives
Unicellular and Multicellular Green Algae
•Chlorophyll a & b •Cellulose Cell Walls •Starch stored in double-membrane Bound Chloroplast
Based on Lemieux et al., 2000 and Karol et al., 2001
Land Plants and their close relatives
Based on Karol et al., 2001
Hepatophyta Anthocerotophyta Bryophyta
Liverworts Hornworts Mosses
“Bryophytes”: The monosporangiate land plants
“Vascular Plants”: The polysporangiate land plants
Lignified Vascular Tissue Sporophyte with multiple sporangia
Embryophyte (Land Plant) Phylogeny
Cycas Ginkgo Phyllocladus Welwitschia
“Gnetophyta”Ephedra Gnetum Welwitschia
Seed Plant Phylogeny
Based on Chaw et al., 2000
Phylum Hepatophyta: The Liverworts
Bazzania - Leafy type
Metzgeria - Thalloid type
Porella - Leafy type
Conocephalum - Thalloid type
Targionia - Thalloid type
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Haplomitrium -Leafy type
Calypogeia Leaf cells with oil bodies and chloroplasts
Biological Characteristics of Liverworts: • Liverworts, or Hepatics, are a distinct group of plants, consisting of about 6000 species. • They are usually considered to be the most alga-like of all land plants. • These are very small plants and are generally inconspicuous, and tend to grow on damp soil or the bark or leaves oftrees. Some are floating, fresh water organisms. • There are two major growth forms: thalloid and leafy. • The gametophyte is usually green and long-lived, whereas the sporophyte is non-photosynthetic, ephemeral, and fragile. • A few liverworts possess conducting tissues, but only in the gametophyte. • No stomata in their epidermis.
Phylum Anthocerotophyta: The Hornworts
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One chloroplast per cell
Biological Characteristics of Hornworts: • A small group of plants that may be the most alga-like of all land plants. • The main genus is Anthoceros. There are about 100 species of hornworts. • The body of the gametophyte is similar in appearance to a thalloidliverwort. • Each cell of the gametophyte body contains a single, massive chloroplast. In this respect, it closely resembles many algae. • The thallus has extensive internal cavities that are inhabited by cyanobacteria which fix nitrogen that is later absorbed by the plant. • The green and photosynthetic sporophyte is an elongated, spindle shaped structure, resembling a “horn”. • No conducting tissues areknown in the hornworts. • Stomata are present on the sporophyte. • Most hornworts grow in moist disturbed sites, mainly on soil but sometimes on rocks.
Phylum Bryophyta: The Mosses
Sphagnum – Peat Moss Takakia Mnium hornum
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Pogonatum aloides Capsules
Major types of...