Quiereme tantito

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Phylogeny of Eukaryotes
Animals Choanoflagellates
Collar Flagellates

Fungi

Alveolates
Ciliates Dinoflagellates Foraminiferans Plasmodium

Stramenopiles
Golden Algae Brown Algae Diatoms Water Molds

Red Algae

Viridiplantae
Green Algae Land Plants

Other Protists
Euglena Cryptomonads Many more...

Opisthokonts

Ancestral Eukaryote

Prasinophytes ChlorophyceaeTrebouxiophyceae Ulvophyceae Chlorokybales Klebsormidiales Zygnematales Mesostigma viride

Coleochaetales Charales

Embryophytes

Land Plants and close relatives

Unicellular and Multicellular Green Algae

“Kingdom Plantae”

Chlorophytes

Streptophytes

800mya
Ancestral Viridiplantae
•Chlorophyll a & b •Cellulose Cell Walls •Starch stored in double-membrane Bound Chloroplast

Phylogeny ofViridiplantae
Based on Lemieux et al., 2000 and Karol et al., 2001

Land Plants and their close relatives

Coleochaete

Chara

Coleochaetales
Freshwater Algae

Charales
Freshwater Algae

Embryophytes
Land Plants

Based on Karol et al., 2001

Hepatophyta Anthocerotophyta Bryophyta
Liverworts Hornworts Mosses

Lycophyta Sphenophyta
Clubmosses Horsetails

PterophytaFerns

Seed Plants

“Bryophytes”: The monosporangiate land plants

“Vascular Plants”: The polysporangiate land plants

Seeds

Lignified Vascular Tissue Sporophyte with multiple sporangia

Embryophyte (Land Plant) Phylogeny

Pinus
Cycas Ginkgo Phyllocladus Welwitschia

Hibiscus

Cycadophyta
Cycads

Ginkgophyta
Maidenhair Tree

Coniferophyta
Excluding pines

“Gnetophyta”Ephedra Gnetum Welwitschia

Coniferophyta
Pine Family

Anthophyta
Flowering Plants

“Gymnosperms”

“Angiosperms”

Seed Plant Phylogeny
Based on Chaw et al., 2000

Phylum Hepatophyta: The Liverworts
Bazzania - Leafy type

Metzgeria - Thalloid type

Porella - Leafy type

Conocephalum - Thalloid type

Targionia - Thalloid type

More Liverwort pictures...

Haplomitrium -Leafy type

Calypogeia Leaf cells with oil bodies and chloroplasts

Biological Characteristics of Liverworts: • Liverworts, or Hepatics, are a distinct group of plants, consisting of about 6000 species. • They are usually considered to be the most alga-like of all land plants. • These are very small plants and are generally inconspicuous, and tend to grow on damp soil or the bark or leaves oftrees. Some are floating, fresh water organisms. • There are two major growth forms: thalloid and leafy. • The gametophyte is usually green and long-lived, whereas the sporophyte is non-photosynthetic, ephemeral, and fragile. • A few liverworts possess conducting tissues, but only in the gametophyte. • No stomata in their epidermis.

Phylum Anthocerotophyta: The Hornworts
a.k.a. DivisionAnthocerophyta

Stoma

Sporophytes

Gametophyte thallus
Sporophytes

More hornwort pictures...

One chloroplast per cell

Biological Characteristics of Hornworts: • A small group of plants that may be the most alga-like of all land plants. • The main genus is Anthoceros. There are about 100 species of hornworts. • The body of the gametophyte is similar in appearance to a thalloidliverwort. • Each cell of the gametophyte body contains a single, massive chloroplast. In this respect, it closely resembles many algae. • The thallus has extensive internal cavities that are inhabited by cyanobacteria which fix nitrogen that is later absorbed by the plant. • The green and photosynthetic sporophyte is an elongated, spindle shaped structure, resembling a “horn”. • No conducting tissues areknown in the hornworts. • Stomata are present on the sporophyte. • Most hornworts grow in moist disturbed sites, mainly on soil but sometimes on rocks.

Phylum Bryophyta: The Mosses
Sphagnum – Peat Moss Takakia Mnium hornum

Mnium hornum

Mnium affine

More moss pictures...

Pogonatum aloides Capsules

Plagiomnium undulatum

Capsules

Polytrichum ohioense

Major types of...
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