30th Annual Meeting International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration
March 16–19, 2008
2008 Ammonia Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition The Broadmoor Hotel Colorado Springs, Colorado
The success of the 30th Annual Meeting of the International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration is due to the quality of the technical papers in this volume and the laborof its authors. IIAR expresses its deep appreciation to the authors, reviewers, and editors for their contributions to the ammonia refrigeration industry. Board of Directors, International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration
ABOUT THIS VOLUME
IIAR Technical Papers are subjected to rigorous technical peer review. The views expressed in the papers in this volume are those of the authors, not theInternational Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration. They are not official positions of the Institute and are not officially endorsed.
International Institute of Ammonia Refrigeration 1110 North Glebe Road Suite 250 Arlington, VA 22201 + 1-703-312-4200 (voice) + 1-703-312-0065 (fax) www.iiar.org 2008 Ammonia Refrigeration Conference & Exhibition The Broadmoor Hotel Colorado Springs, ColoradoTechnical Paper #3 Ammonia as the Sustainable Refrigerant: An Ammonia-Halocarbon Comparison
Alex Gooseff ALTA Refrigeration Peachtree City, Georgia Jamie Horton ElectroMotion Refrigeration Fenton, Missouri
When contemplating the question “Should our facility utilize an ammonia or halocarbon refrigeration system?” an owner should perform a detailed financial analysis of the two systems.The first cost difference of the two systems may be easily returned via the savings in operating costs and the long term benefits can be significant. For the example Case Study, the original investment of $208,000 for an ammonia system resulted in a simple pay-back of about 1.7 years and a total savings of about $4.9 million over 20 years. In general the following rules of thumb apply for adistribution facility application: Less than 50,000 sq. ft. refrigerated space, halocarbon split circuit systems are normally accepted. A 50,000 to 200,000 sq. ft. refrigerated space, both halocarbon split circuit systems and central ammonia systems are common. Over 200,000 sq. ft. refrigerated space, central ammonia refrigeration systems are most common.
2008 IIAR Ammonia Refrigeration Conference &Exhibition, Colorado Springs, Colorado
© IIAR 2008
Ammonia as the Sustainable Refrigerant: An Ammonia-Halocarbon Comparison
Owners of refrigerated distribution centers and cold storage facilities frequently ask refrigeration design engineers a common question: Should our facility utilize an ammonia or halocarbon refrigeration system? This question has been asked morefrequently since the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) enacted 29 CFR 1910.119 entitled Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (PSM) in 1992. Also, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) issued a rule under the Clean Air Act (CAA) encompassing provisions for accidental release prevention in 1992 which required facilities to develop and implement aRisk Management Plan (RMP). Ammonia systems containing over 10,000 lbs (4536 kg) of refrigerant are required to comply with OSHA PSM and EPA RMP programs. The latest government compliance is the chemical facility anti-terrorism security (CFATS) regulation required by the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2007. Companies with 10,000 lbs (4536 kg) or more of ammonia on-site in a refrigerationsystem were required to submit information to DHS by January 22, 2008. Another issue which brings this question to light is the current and proposed phase out of certain CFC and HCFC refrigerants like R-22. These phase-outs have raised concern over the long term availability of refrigerants that have high Ozone Depleting Potential (ODP) and Global Warming Potential (GWP). Most industrial...