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  • Publicado : 11 de noviembre de 2010
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Cholera is an infection of the small intestine that causes a large amount of watery diarrhea.
• Abdominal cramps
• Dry mucus membranes or mouth
• Dry skin
• Excessive thirst
• Glassy or sunken eyes
• Lack of tears
• Lethargy
• Low urine output
• Nausea
• Rapid dehydration
• Rapid pulse (heart rate)
• Sunken "softspots" (fontanelles) in infants
• Unusual sleepiness or tiredness
• Vomiting
• Watery diarrhea that starts suddenly
o Diarrhea has a "fishy" odor
o Stool looks like water with flecks of rice in it

Note: Symptoms can vary from mild to severe.
The objective of treatment is to replace fluid and electrolytes lost through diarrhea. Depending on yourcondition, you may be given fluids by mouth or through a vein (intravenous). Antibiotics may shorten the time you feel ill.The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed an oral rehydration solution that is cheaper and easier to use than the typical intravenous fluid. This solution of sugar and electrolytes is now being used internationally.
Cholera is caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.The bacteria releases a toxin that causes increased release of water in the intestines, which produces severe diarrhea.Cholera occurs in places with poor sanitation, crowding, war, and famine. Common locations for cholera include:
Africa Asia India Mexico South and Central America The Mediterranean
People get the infection by ingesting contaminated food or water.A type of vibrio bacteriaalso has been associated with shellfish, especially raw oysters.Risk factors include:Exposure to contaminated or untreated drinking water Living in or traveling to areas where there is cholera
Tests & diagnosis
Tests that may be done include: Blood culture Stool culture
Severe dehydration can cause death. Given adequate fluids, most people will make a full recovery.
TheU.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention does not recommend cholera vaccines for most travelers. (Such a vaccine is not available in the United States.)Travelers should always take precautions with food and drinking water, even if vaccinated.When outbreaks of cholera occur, efforts should be directed toward establishing clean water, food, and sanitation, because vaccination is not veryeffective in managing outbreaks.
Complications Severe dehydration Death
When to contact a doctor
Call your health care provider if :
• You develop severe watery diarrhea
• You have signs of dehydration, including:
o Dry mouth
o Dry skin
o "Glassy" eyes
o Lethargy
o No tears
o Rapid pulse
o Reduced or no urineo Sunken eyes
o Thirst
o Unusual sleepiness or tiredness


Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal infection caused by ingestion of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. Transmission occurs through direct faecal-oral contamination or through ingestion of contaminated water and food. The disease is characterized in its most severe form by a sudden onset of acute watery diarrhoeathat can lead to death by severe dehydration and kidney failure. The extremely short incubation period - two hours to five days - enhances the potentially explosive pattern of outbreaks, as the number of cases can rise very quickly. About 75% of people infected with cholera do not develop any symptoms. However, the pathogens stay in their faeces for 7 to 14 days and are shed back into theenvironment, potentially infecting other individuals. Cholera is an extremely virulent disease that affects both children and adults. Unlike other diarrhoeal diseases, it can kill healthy adults within hours. Individuals with lower immunity, such as malnourished children or people living with HIV, are at greater risk of death if infected by cholera.


During the 19th century, cholera spread...
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