Taj mahal

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Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal is a complex of buildings built between 1631 and 1654 in the city of Agra, Uttar Pradesh, India, on the banks of the Yamuna, by the Muslim emperor Shah Jahan of the Mughal dynasty. The stunning set was erected in honor of his favorite wife, Arjumand Bano Begum - better known as Mumtaz Mahal - who died giving birth to their 14th child, and it is estimated that the effortneeded to build about 20,000 workers.

The Taj Mahal is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture, a style that combines elements of Islamic architecture, Persian 1, 2 and even India turca.3 The monument has been especially well known for the romantic character of his inspiration. Although the mausoleum covered by white marble dome is the most familiar, Taj Mahal is an integrated set ofbuildings.
The word "Taj"comes from the Persian language of the Mughal court, meaning "Crown ", while "Mahal" is a shorter variant of Mumtaz Mahal, the formal name in the court of Arjumand Banu Begum, meaning "First lady of the palace. "Taj Mahal, then, refers to "crown Mahal, the beloved wife of Shah Jahan.

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Origin and inspiration

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Location of Agra in India.

The emperor ShahJahan was a prolific patron with almost unlimited resources. Under his tutelage were built the palaces and gardens of Shalimar in Lahore, also in honor of his wife Mumtaz Mahal gave her husband fourteen children, but died in the last delivery and the emperor, who was devastated, almost immediately began the construction of the Taj as a posthumous gift. All details of the building show theirromantic nature, and the set boasts a splendid aesthetic.

Design

Formal elements

Formal and decorative elements are used repeatedly and consistently throughout the complex, unifying the aesthetic vocabulary. The main features of the mausoleum reflected in the rest of the buildings:

1. Finial: top ornate domes, also used in Asian pagodas.
2. Lotus decoration: Outline of the lotusflower carved into the domes.
3. Onion domes, also called "amrud, typical of the architecture of
Islam, and that would be used later in Russia.
4. Drum: cylindrical base of the dome, which supports formal transition
and on the basement of the building.
5. Guldasta: decorative needle attached to the edge of the bearing
walls.
6. Chattri: kiosk columns and dome,also used in isolation or exempt
as a memorial.
7. Borders: closing panels on arches.
8. Calligraphy: stylized writing of Koranic verses on the main arches
9. Arches or portals, also called pishtaq (Persian word for free
content).
10. Given: decorative panels flanking the main walls.

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Symmetry

The entire Taj Mahal, with its main axis perpendicular tothe banks of the Yamuna (10), consists of the following architectural elements: (see location on the floor layout)

1. Main gateway
2. Secondary graves
3. Outdoor patios
4. Patio (esplanade) main access
5. Darwaza or strong access
6. Mosque
7. Jabaz
8. Mausoleum
9. Minarets
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Decoration

Exterior

Virtually the entire surface of the complex has been decorated, and is among themost beautiful exterior decorations of Mughal architecture of any era. Here too, the reasons are repeated in all buildings and items. In proportion to the size of the area to decorate, decoration becomes more or less refined and detailed. The decorative elements basically belong to three categories, recalling that the Islamic religion forbids the representation of human figure:

• Calligraphy
•abstract geometric elements
• Reasons plant

These decorations were executed with three different techniques:

• Paint or stucco applied to the walls
• stone inlay
• Sculpture

[pic]Calligraphy on the great gateway to the mausoleum

[pic] Geometric decoration "fishbone"

[pic] Plant motifs: panel detail with a bow

Abstract geometric design

Abstract art forms are used...
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