3G or 3rd generation mobile telecommunications, is a generation of standards for mobile phones and mobile telecommunication services fulfilling theInternational Mobile Telecommunications-2000 (IMT — 2000) specifications by the International Telecommunication Union. Application services include wide-area wireless voice telephone, mobileInternet access, video calls and mobile TV, all in a mobile environment. To meet the IMT-2000 standards, a system is required to provide peak data rates of at least 200 kbit/s.
The following standardsare typically branded 3G:
• the UMTS system, first offered in 2001, standardized by 3GPP, used primarily in Europe, Japan, China (however with a different radio interface) and other regionspredominated by GSM 2G system infrastructure. The cell phones are typically UMTS and GSM hybrids. Several radio interfaces are offered, sharing the same infrastructure:
o The original and mostwidespread radio interface is called W-CDMA.
o The TD-SCDMA radio interface, was commercialised in 2009 and is only offered in China.
o The latest UMTS release, HSPA+, canprovide peak data rates up to 56 Mbit/s in the downlink in theory (28 Mbit/s in existing services) and 22 Mbit/s in the uplink.
• the CDMA2000 system, first offered in 2002, standardized by 3GPP2,used especially in North America and South Korea, sharing infrastructure with the IS-95 2G standard. The cell phones are typically CDMA2000 and IS-95 hybrids. The latest release EVDO Rev B offers peakrates of 14.7 Mbit/s downstreams.
A new generation of cellular standards has appeared approximately every tenth year since 1G systems were introduced in 1981/1982. Each generation is characterized bynew frequency bands, higher data rates and non backwards compatible transmission technology. The first release of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard does not completely fulfill the ITU 4G...