In each phase of a film's production a group of people collaborate to from a miniature work organitazion which has characteristic problems ofmotivation, leadership and structure. Each phase is a temporary sistem, limited in duration an membership, in which people come together, interact, create something, andthen disband. And in each phase, the director has to simulate and manage different kinds of creative work under intense budget and time pressures. The director'sprincipal job is managing the creative process.
In this article we use the word "creativity" to mean technical as well as artistic creativity, realizing thatthis will overlap what others define as innovation. The notion of creativity is important because there is a high correlation between temporariness and creativity,an between permanence and routine. Most temporary organizations, such as film units or projet teams, exist to develop an idea, a plan, a product, or a service,or to make something happen such as a trip to the moon or a bicentennial celebration. when groups or teams have completed their task, they dissolve. In contrast,permanent organizations exist to carry out a relatively repetitive manufacturing or service task for which there is a continuing need.
Because film units