The big bang theory

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  • Publicado : 17 de junio de 2011
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What constitutes big bang theory about the creation of the universe?


A. - Definition of several authors.
1. Larousse editorial’s definition:
The study of the origin and evolution of the universe and its large-scale structure, is the subject of cosmology. The possible models of the universe are based on theories of gravitation andparticle physics and rely on ideas of relativity and quantum mechanics. The model enjoys widespread acceptance contends that the universe, with all matter and radiation that contains were created in a single instant explosion, the Big Bang (Big Bang), that took place between 10000 and 20000 million years (the exact age of the universe is not yet certain). In the first seconds after the Big Bang, theuniverse was a hell concentrated high-energy elementary particles, among which were electrons, protons, neutrons and photons at extremely high temperatures.(B. R. #1)

2. Ocean editorial’s definition:
The Big Bang is a theory about the origin of the universe that explains the expansion through the initial upheaval caused by the original explosion of an atom containing concentrated all matterand energy of the universe today. With the explosion, best known for Big-Bang, matter and radiation energy spread, creating the space. At first the temperature could be 15 000 million degrees, but then decreased rapidly, forming giant clouds of gas that became galaxies. (B. R. #2)

3. León Andrés Quintanar’s definition:
"All the facts so far support the hypothesis that the universe begansuddenly, from an initial state at very high temperature and density, and began to expand between 10 and 20 million years. It is what is known as big bang theory"(B. R. #3)

B. - Description of the Big Bang.
Michio Kaku noted certain paradox in the name big bang somehow could not have been great because it occurred just before the emergence of space-time, would be the same big bang which would havegenerated the dimensions from a singularity, not exactly an explosion in the traditional sense because it does not spread outside of himself.

The universe in its early days was filled with a homogeneous and isotropic energy dense and had a temperature and pressure attendant. It expanded and cooled, undergoing phase changes similar to the condensation of steam or water freezing, but related toelementary particles.

Approximately 10-35 seconds after the Planck time a phase change caused the universe expands exponentially during a period called cosmic inflation. After inflation, the material components of the universe is in the form of a quark-gluon plasma, where all parties that were formed in a relativistic motion. With the growth in size of the universe, the temperature dropped, due toa change called baryogenesis still unknown, the quarks and gluons combined into baryons like the proton and the neutron, somehow producing the observed asymmetry between matter now and antimatter. Even lower temperatures led to further changes in phase, which broke the symmetry, so they gave their present form to the fundamental forces of physics and elementary particles.

Later, protons andneutrons combined to form the nuclei of deuterium and helium in a process called nuclei synthesis. When the universe cooled, matter gradually stopped moving in a relativistic, its energy density gravitationally began to dominate over radiation. Past 300,000 years, the electrons and nuclei combined into atoms (mostly hydrogen). Therefore, the radiation is decoupled from the atoms and continuedthrough space unimpeded. This is the microwave background radiation.

Over time, some slightly more dense regions of matter gravitationally grew almost uniformly distributed, becoming more dense, forming clouds, stars, galaxies and other astronomical structures currently observed. The details of this process depend on the amount and type of matter in the Universe. The three possible types are called...
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