The People's Republic of China 1949-1957
FIRST YEARS + GOVT STRUCTURE:
Communist party was the heart of the PRC ; leading members of the CPC held the important positions in the govt. and the PLA (Peoples Liberation Army) for example Mao was the supreme power in the PLA, the CPC and the government. The Communist party also dominated the govt. of all the provinces and local administration.The party was a mainly rural-based organization and had no deep roots in urban areas. It had been operating mainly in the north of the Yangzi for 15 years, therefore Mao faced the fact that many party members did not speak southern dialects which difficulted the communication to a great extent (this is a big disadvantage if you want to rule a country.). Under this circumstances any try torapidly transform the country will result in a great fail. So it first dedicated to establish an effective administration in Central and Southern China.
The Communist party policy at this period was highly pragmatic because it needed to keep public services and keep law and order to get an administration running correctly. It first recruited thousands of ideologically unreliable people as it did nothave many reliable ones to do these jobs. This meant maintaining people from the old GMD regime in bureaucratic positions and other positions like police and courts. Despite the fact that they were being very confident they eliminated thousands of persons who did not agree with the communist ideology and ambitious landowners.
REFORM IN THE COUNTRYSIDE
The CPC wanted to destroy the existingrural elité. Ancient dinasties had already tried to do this but the CPC went beyond them. To do so, the Party needed to take the power of the old elité, their wealth and most of its power. The Party knew that this would be difficult as the landlord's influence was too deeply ingrained in the minds of the peasants and this meant that they needed to DESTROY THEM AS A CLASS. And simultaneously theyneeded to create the future power structure. Veteran communists arrived to the rural areas to create peasant organizations to produce people with talent for leadership to become village leaders. However, travelling work teams controlled the village transformations. They also came to do a specific job like tax-collection or supervise social transformation. But mainly to PROPAGANDIZE the newcommunist government and make peasants fight against the rich landowners.
-Many members of the travelling teams were not experienced revolutionaries. Many of them were intellectuals that came from high backgrounds. Also, as the landowners influence was so strong, many found the idea of overthrowing the rich was alien to them. And some peasants felt that the old GMD regime did not treatthem badly.
-Many villages had fought against each other for more lands, therefore there was a territorial inconvenient. The peasants could not conceive the fact that they should unite with other peasants to fight against their landowners.
-Peasants from the same class did not treat each other respectfully, In traditional village society, people with power could use it to command obedience fromthose below him. This idea was deeply ingrained in the minds of the Chinese peasantry.
- In the early stages of transformation, landlords did not suffer too much. As i said above, Mao could not afford too many enemies as there was a vast majority of the population who where alien to communist ideology and where even hostile to this idea as it damaged their own benefits. There where only a fewknown as 'local despots' who where charged with exceptional crimes against peasants were put on trial and had the majority of their property confiscated.
-After a year of the campaigns, each village had a core of peasant activists with some leadership experience. Even some of those 'local despots' were tried by 'people's tribunals' which gave confidence to the peasants by giving them the...
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