The Independence of Mexico was the result of political and social process determined by the use of arms, ending Spanish rule in the territories of New Spain. The Mexican War of Independence lasted from the Grito de Dolores, the September 16, 1810, to the entrance of the Three Guarantees Army to the City of Mexico on September 27, 1821.
The Mexicanindependence movement is under the Enlightenment and the liberal revolutions of the late eighteenth century. At that time the educated elite began to reflect on the relations between Spain and its colonies. Changes in social and political structure derived from the Bourbon reforms, which was compounded by a deep economic crisis in New Spain, also generated unease among some segments of the population.
TheFrench occupation of the metropolis in 1808 in New Spain triggered a political crisis that led to the armed movement. In that year, King Charles IV and Ferdinand VII abdicated on for Napoleon Bonaparte, who left the crown of Spain to his brother Joseph Bonaparte. In response, the City of Mexico, with support of the Viceroy José de Iturrigaray-claimed sovereignty in the absence of the legitimateking, the reaction led to a coup against the viceroy and carried to jail the leaders of the movement.
Despite the defeat of the natives in Mexico City in 1808, other cities in New Spain gathered small groups of conspirators who tried to follow in the footsteps of the City of Mexico. Such was the case of Valladolid plot, discovered in 1809 and whose participants were imprisoned. In 1810, theconspirators in Queretaro were about to suffer the same fate but, to be discovered, they chose to take up arms on September 16 in the company of peasants and indigenous inhabitants of the town of Dolores (Guanajuato), summoned by the priest Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.Since 1810, the independence movement went through several stages, as successive leaders were imprisoned or executed by forces loyal toSpain. At first he claimed the sovereignty of Ferdinand VII of Spain and its colonies, but the leaders took more radical positions after including social issues such as the abolition of slavery. Jose Maria Morelos y Pavon summoned the separatist provinces to form the Congress of Anahuac, which gave the insurgency of its own legal framework. After the defeat of Morelos, the movement was reduced toa guerrilla war. By 1820, there were only some rebel groups, particularly in the Sierra Madre del Sur and Veracruz.
The rehabilitation of the Constitution of Cadiz in 1820 encouraged the change in position of the elite of New Spain, which until then had supported the Spanish rule.
To see their interests affected, the Creole royalists decided to support the independence of New Spain, whichsought to ally themselves with the rebel resistance. Agustin de Iturbide led the military wing of the conspirators, and in early 1821 could be found with Vicente Guerrero. Both proclaimed the Plan de Iguala, which called for the union of all factions and insurgents had the support of the aristocracy and the clergy of New Spain. Finally, Mexico's independence was consummated on September 27,1821.After that, New Spain became the Mexican Empire, a short-lived Catholic monarchy led to a federal republic in 1823, between internal conflict and the separation of Central America
.After some attempts at reconquest, including the issuance of Isidro Barradas in 1829, Spain recognized Mexico's independence in 1836, following the death of King Fernando VII.
Español: la independencia de México
LaIndependencia de México fue la consecuencia de un proceso político y social resuelto por la vía de las armas, que puso fin al dominio español en los territorios de Nueva España. La guerra por la independencia mexicana se extendió desde el Grito de Dolores, el 16 de septiembre de 1810, hasta la entrada del Ejército Trigarante a la Ciudad de México, el 27 de septiembre de 1821.