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Zajda, J. & Daun, H. (2009). “Global Values Education: Teaching Democracy and Peace.” London New York. Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2009. Library of Congress Control Number: 2009926167.

This, the seventh in the 12-volume series Globalisation, Comparative Education and Policy Research, presents scholarly research on major discourses in values educationglobally.

The author Zadja, J. makes an introduction of what is “Values Education and Multiculturalism in the Global Culture”. In this introduction he explains the historical and social origins of values and he affirms that values can be defined as: Principles and fundamental convictions which act as general guides to behavior, the standards by which particular actions are judged to be good ordesirable” (Halstead et al. 2000, p. 169). Values refer to ideas held by individuals or groups concerning standards defining that is “good or bad”, what is desirable and what is not desirable ( Giddens 1991, p. 732).

In addition, he argues that values may refer to a particular belief system (believing that pluralist democracy is the best political system), a mode of conduct (being honest,tolerant and courageous), a state of existence (peace, tolerance and equality), or a moral judgement (truth, beauty and justice).

Some values deal with proper ways, or standards, of interacting with others (being polite, cooperative, truthful and accepting). Other values describe desirable states of existence to which we all aspire (desire for work, happiness, peace, love and fulfilling life).Teaching our students morality or values education means teaching them what we ourselves, as citizens, with a democratic voice in a pluralist democracy, understand by morality and moral values. It is important to understand that not only values may vary from culture to culture, but they are also subjective. A value considered good in one society may be bad in another.

And he makes a classification ofvalues; he says that different values are associated with different criteria. We can differentiate between aesthetic, cultural, civic, family, economic, environmental, intellectual, legal moral, political, religious, scientific, technological and social values. He does not give the explanation of what each value means.

Spranger, E. (1928). “Types of men”. New York: G.E. Stechert Company, 1928.

Spranger suggests that the individual is best understood through a study of his values, which he classified into six categories: theoretical, economic, aesthetic, social, political, and religious.

1. The Theoretical. The dominant interest of the theoretical man is the discovery of truth. In the pursuit of this goal he characteristically takes a 'cognitive'attitude, one that looks for identities and differences; one that divests itself of judgments regarding the beauty or utility of objects, and seeks only to observe and to reason. Since the interests of the theoretical man are empirical, critical, and rational, he is necessarily an intellectualist, frequently a scientist or philosopher. His chief aim in life is to order and systematize his knowledge.2. The Economic. The economic man is characteristically interested in what is useful. Based originally upon the satisfaction of bodily needs (self-preservation), the interest in utilities develops to embrace the practical affairs of the business world - the production, marketing, and consumption of goods, the elaboration of credit, and the accumulation of tangible wealth. This type is thoroughly'practical' and conforms well to the prevailing stereotype of businessman.

3. The Aesthetic. The aesthetic man sees his highest value in form and harmony. Each single experience is judged from the standpoint of grace, symmetry, or fitness. He regards life as a procession of events; each single impression is enjoyed for its own sake. He need not be a creative artist, nor need he be effete; he is...
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