Violence in Dating and/or Courtship
Violence in courtship is a variant or an element of domestic violence. Domestic violence is also known as spousal violence or partner abuse. It can be broadly defined as a pattern of abusive behavior by one or both partners in an intimate marriage, dating, family, friends or cohabitation. (Lexjuris.com, Act 54of 1989) Domestic violence takes many forms including physical aggression (punches, kicks, bites, shoving, subjection, slap, throwing objects), or threats thereof; sexual abuse, emotional abuse, control or domination, bullying, passive harassment, hidden abuse (e.g., negligence), and economic deprivation. The consumption of alcohol and mental illness can be co-morbid with abuse, and presentsadditional challenges when they are present in the patterns of abuse. (Puerto Rican Task Force Report, 1979) The United States Office on violence against women defines domestic violence as a "pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over the other part of the couple". The definition adds that domestic violence "can happen to anyoneregardless of race, age, sexual orientation, religion or gender", and that can take many forms, including physical abuse, sexual, emotional and economic abuse, and psychological abuse. (National Coalition Against Domestic Violence, 2010)
Purpose of violence
All forms of domestic violence have a purpose: to achieve and maintain total control over the victim. Abusers use many tactics to exertpower over his or her spouse or partner: the domination, humiliation, isolation, threats, bullying denial, and guilt.
Causes of violence
The causes of violence are generally unknown, but they include factors such as the patriarchate or machismo, alcohol and drug abuse, mental illness, a learned pattern of violence,
and the consequences of child abuse. The causes for which a person can initiatea pattern of abuse can be from diverse backgrounds, but all have the basis of being in control. In this regard is much what has been said, and has been investigated. There is literature and research, trying to explain this phenomenon in various ways. Some researchers suggest that violence has its foundations in the patriarchal culture, that man is more man if you control the women in yourenvironment. There is also the learned factor, stating that the child that has been abused in its early years, will be an abuser in adulthood. (Ortega, 2005)
Forms of violence
Physical abuse is the contact of abuse, the intention of causing feelings of intimidation, pain, damage or physical suffering or injury body.(Movimiento Manuela Ramos, 2005) Physical abuse included beatings,slaps, blows, asphyxia, pushing, and other types of contact resulting in physical harm to the victim. Physical abuse can also include behaviors such as the denial to the victim of health care when necessary, depriving the victim of sleep or other functions necessary to live, or forcing the victim to participate in the use of drugs / alcohol against their will.
Sexual abuse is anysituation in which the abuser uses the force to get participation in sexual activity that is not desired.(Movimiento Manuela Ramos, 2005) The forced sex, even by a spouse or intimate partner with whom the consensual sex has occurred, is an act of aggression and violence.
Emotional abuse (also called psychological abuse or mental abuse) can include humiliating the victimprivately or publicly, controlling what the victim can and cannot do, withholding information from the victim, deliberately doing something to make the victim feel diminished or feel shame, (Movimiento Manuela Ramos, 2005) isolation of the victim's friends and family, implicitly blackmailing the victim for the damage to others when the victim expresses independence or happiness, or deny access by...