World tradeindcators 2008 by world bank

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Benchmarking Policy and Performance

World Trade Indicators 2008

World Trade Indicators 2008
Benchmarking Policy and Performance
Roumeen Islam Gianni Zanini

Washington, DC

Copyright © 2008 The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / THE WORLD BANK 1818 H Street, N.W. Washington, D.C. 20433, U.S.A. All rights reserved The material inthis work is copyrighted. No part of this work may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or inclusion in any information storage and retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the World Bank. The World Bank encourages dissemination of its work and will normally grant permission promptly. The findings,interpretations, and conclusions expressed here are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Board of Executive Directors of the World Bank or the governments they represent. The World Bank cannot guarantee the accuracy of the data included in this work. The boundaries, colors, denominations, and other information shown on any map in this work do not imply on the part ofthe World Bank any judgment of the legal status of any territory or the endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries. Library of Congress cataloging-in-publication data has been applied for. ISBN: 978-0-8213-7567-9 eISBN: 978–0–8213–7568–6 DOI: 10.1596/978-0-8213-7567–9 Cover design: Quantum Think, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Cover photo: Panos


Preface Acknowledgments AbbreviationsCountries and Customs Territories in the WTI Database
Executive Summary 1. Introduction
Trade Policy External Environment Overall Business and Institutional Environment Trade Facilitation

ix xi xiii xv
xvii 1 5
5 23 36 38

2. Policy-Related Trade Indicators

3. Trade Outcomes 4. Regional Analyses
East Asia and the Pacific Europe and Central Asia Latin America and the Caribbean MiddleEast and North Africa South Asia Sub-Saharan Africa

41 55
55 58 61 64 66 69 75 83 85 89 10 1

A. B. C. D. E. Definitions of Selected Indicators Background to the Selection of Trade-Related Indicators Trade Indicators by Other Institutions Trade-At-A-Glance Tables, by Income Group Full List of Indicators

Notes References

111 119



2.1. Garment andTextiles Exporters Also Face Higher Tariffs Than the Rest of the World 30

2.1. Tariff Protection Is Highest among Low-Income Countries and the SAS, MNA, and SSA Regions 2.2. Tariffs Have Been Falling in All Regions, but Remain High in MNA, SAS, and SSA 2.3. Import Duties Collected Are Much Lower Than Statutory Tariffs 2.4. Countries with Lower Tariffs Tend to Be More Integrated 2.5. TheSAS Region and Other Low-Income Countries Had the Largest Decreases in Tariffs 2.6. Countries Have Liberalized Agriculture Less Than Other Merchandise Sectors 2.7. High- and Middle-Income Countries Have Less Transparent Protection 2.8. MNA and HI-OECD Countries Protect Agriculture the Most and SSA the Least 2.9. Maximum Tariffs and Dispersion Are Still High in Many Regions 2.10. Tariff Escalation IsHighest in MNA and High-Income OECD Countries, Especially in Agriculture 2.11. Fiscal Revenues Are Most Dependent on Import Duties in SSA and SAS Countries 2.12. ECA and High-Income OECD Countries Have Committed the Most to Open Their Services Sectors and Low-Income Countries the Least 2.13. High-Income Countries Are More Committed Than Other Groups to Services Trade Liberalization in MostSectors 2.14. Market Access Is More Restricted in Agriculture 2.15. SAS Exporters Face the Highest Tariff Barriers and MNA’s the Lowest 2.16. Better Market Access Helps Trade and Export Performance 2.17. Agricultural Exporters Face Higher Market Access Barriers 2.18. Duty-Free Trade Has Increased Significantly 2.19. Benefits from Preferences Vary across Regions from Low to Modest 2.20. Countries with...
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