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A n Introduction to English P honetics
A n Introduction to English P honetics

RICHARD OGDEN

Richard Ogden

Edinburgh

An Introduction to English Phonetics

Edinburgh Textbooks on the English Language
General Editor Heinz Giegerich, Professor of English Linguistics (University of Edinburgh) Editorial Board Laurie Bauer (University of Wellington) Derek Britton (University ofEdinburgh) Olga Fischer (University of Amsterdam) Rochelle Lieber (University of New Hampshire) Norman Macleod (University of Edinburgh) Donka Minkova (UCLA) Edward W. Schneider (University of Regensburg) Katie Wales (University of Leeds) Anthony Warner (University of York)

     An Introduction to English Syntax Jim Miller An Introduction to English Phonology April McMahon AnIntroduction to English Morphology: Words and Their Structure Andrew Carstairs-McCarthy An Introduction to International Varieties of English Laurie Bauer An Introduction to Middle English Jeremy Smith and Simon Horobin An Introduction to Old English Richard Hogg An Introduction to Early Modern English Terttu Nevalainen An Introduction to English Semantics and Pragmatics Patrick Griffiths AnIntroduction to English Sociolinguistics Graeme Trousdale An Introduction to Late Modern English Ingrid Tieken-Boon van Ostade An Introduction to Regional Englishes: Dialect Variation in England Joan Beal An Introduction to English Phonetics Richard Ogden

An Introduction to English Phonetics

Richard Ogden

E dinb u rgh U niv ers ity P res s

© Richard Ogden, 2009 Edinburgh University PressLtd 22 George Square, Edinburgh www.euppublishing.com Typeset in Janson by Norman Tilley Graphics Ltd, and printed and bound in Great Britain by CPI Antony Rowe, Chippenham and Eastbourne A CIP record for this book is available from the British Library ISBN 978 0 7486 2540 6 (hardback) ISBN 978 0 7486 2541 3 (paperback) The right of Richard Ogden to be identified as author of this work has beenasserted in accordance with the Copyright, Designs and Patents Act 1988.

Contents

List of figures and tables To readers Acknowledgements 1 Introduction to phonetics 1.1 What is phonetics? 1.2 What this book covers 1.3 Ways to talk about sounds 1.4 An overview of the book Further reading 2 Overview of the human speech mechanism 2.1 The complexity of speech sounds 2.2 Breathing 2.3 The larynx andvoicing 2.4 Airflow 2.5 Place of articulation 2.6 Manner of articulation Summary Exercises Further reading 3 Representing the sounds of speech 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Phonetic transcription 3.3 Acoustic representations 3.4 Acoustic representations and segments 3.5 Representation and units in phonetics Summary Exercises Further reading

viii xi xiii 1 1 3 3 5 6 7 7 7 9 10 12 16 18 18 19 20 20 20 29 3536 37 37 38

vi

AN INTRODUCTION TO ENGLISH PHONETICS

4 The larynx, voicing and voice quality 4.1 Introduction: the production of voicing 4.2 How the vocal folds vibrate 4.3 Fundamental frequency, pitch and intonation 4.4 Phrasing and intonation 4.5 Voice quality Summary Exercises Further reading 5 Vowels 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Reference points for vowels: cardinal vowels 5.3 The acousticsof vowels 5.4 Other vocalic features 5.5 Vowels in English ‘keywords’ 5.6 Reduced vowels 5.7 Voiceless vowels Summary Exercises Further reading 6 Approximants 6.1 Introduction 6.2 The palatal approximant [j] 6.3 A doubly articulated sound: the labiovelar approximant [w] 6.4 Laterals 6.5 ‘Rhotics’ Summary Exercises Further reading 7 Plosives 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Overview of the production ofplosives 7.3 Voicing and plosives in English 7.4 Glottalisation 7.5 Long closure 7.6 Place of articulation 7.7 Release features of plosives 7.8 Taps

40 40 42 43 46 50 53 54 54 56 56 56 62 63 64 74 75 75 76 76 78 78 79 81 83 89 94 94 94 96 96 96 99 104 106 106 109 114

CONTENTS

vii

Summary Exercises Further reading 8 Fricatives 8.1 Introduction to fricatives 8.2 The production of fricatives...
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