Using all the resources available to you, answer the following questions:
1). What are the three ways we discussed that animals avoid predators? Can you think of an additional predator avoidance behavior? How does it work? Why does it work? (Ch 11; 10 pts)
Blending into the environment, being quiet, and choosing safe habitats
Another predator avoidance behavior could be schooling in fish.Fish stay together for social reasons and form large groups called schools. Schools avoid predation by diluting the chance of individual capture and through better predator detection.
2). Imagine you are studying a group of amphibian species that vary in their habitats, some living in dense murky water, and others living in very clear ponds. What kind of communication problems exist in eachenvironment? What sorts of differences in communication systems would you expect to see across species? (Ch 12; 10 pts)
In a murky environment there are visibility issues that inhibit proper interaction between individuals. In a clear pond communication can be inhibited because predators can more clearly visualize prey.
In murky water those amphibians may rely more on vocal communication to overcomelow visibility. In a clear pond those amphibians may be living closer to avoid predation and/or may rely on chemical communication to avoid predation
3). How has research on birdsong provided insight into both proximate and ultimate questions regarding communication? (Ch 12; 10 pts)
I think research on birdsong has provided an insight into the proximate questions regarding communication becauseit shows that the immediate reason for a bird to sing is to attract a female. Experiments (like the ones we saw on class) show that a female bird’s copulation grows longer after hearing a male’s song.
For this behavior to have occurred there needed to be a need for communication, a need for males to try to win over a female, and this is where ultimate reasons regarding communication comes in,from a need and a reason to communicate with others.
4). Consider Møller and Erritzøe’s work on immune defense and migration behavior (pg. 450). Can you make any predictions regarding how a migrating species might fare against local parasites (in both its habitats) as compared to a resident species? What is the logic underlying your hypothesis? (Ch 13; 10 pts)
Migrating species will probably havea hard time facing local parasites. They will get sick more readily than local species and many will die. Because they are not from the area their bodies (immune system) are not ready to defend against a parasite it has not encountered before. As interaction with said parasite increases, the immune response from the migrating species will become stronger, making it resistant to the parasite.
5).If stress-related hormones such as cortisol often inhibit learning and/or memory, how might that compound the difficulties subordinate fish face in trying to raise their rank in hierarchies? (Ch 14; 10 pts)
A subordinate fish might be more susceptible to stress because of its rank. If stress-related hormones often inhibit learning and/or memory some of the difficulties that fish will face intrying to raise its rank in hierarchies are
learning good hiding spots to avoid predation will become harder
Learning better hunting moves will also become harder
Stress has metabolic costs that compete with other functions
All of these interfere with a fish’s growth, making it harder for the fish to get bigger, thus reducing its chances to raise its rank
6). What is the difference between agingand senescence? (Ch 16; 10 pts)
Aging is getting chronologically older. Senescence is loss of an ability as aging occurs, especially cognitive.
7). How would you construct an experiment to examine whether boldness or/or shyness are heritable traits? (Ch 17; 10 pts)
Boldness usually refers to the ability of an individual to take risks no matter what the situation is. Shyness usually refers to...
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