Behavioral Adaptation For Survival
Aviana Estebanez ZOO 1503C.CM1 – Animal Behavior and Ecology Instructor: Angela Yau, M.S.
• Constraint 1: Failure of appropriate mutations to occur.Evolutionary constraints on adaptive perfection can arise from the failure of appropriate mutations to occur, which will prevent selection from keeping up with environmental changes. Thus, maladaptive or noadaptive traits can persist. • Constraint 2: Pleiotropy.(the multiple developmental effects that most genes have). Not all the effects of a given gene are positive. • Constraint 3: Coevolution. Theinability of a selective processes to generate an immediate effective solution to an environmental problem means that less-than-perfect traits can persist within species.
In figure (A) Thedilution effect in the butterfly groups In Figure (B). Individual butterflies that “mud-puddle” in large group experience a lower risk of predation that those that sunk up fluids from the ground bythemselves. “The tendency to join many other mud-puddles would provide benefits in excess of the cost of this traits”
This approach involves testing predictions about the evolution of an interesting traitby looking at species other than the one whose characteristics are under investigations. (a study comparing the behavior of two or more species)
Is strongly associate with the analysis offoraging behabior
If one can measure the fitness costs and benefits associated with the four alternatives behavioral phenotypes in a population, then one can determine which trait confers the greatestnet benefit on individuals in that population. Such trait is an adaptation.
In which the fitness gained by solitary or social focal animal is dependent on the behavior of its opponent may be eithersolitary or social individual.
Calculate costs and benefits of behavior, time spent, and assume optimality to make predictions about organismal behavior.
– Noted that crows...
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