Laxminarayan, S., Bronzino, J. D., Beneken, J. E. W., Usai, S., Jones, R. D. "Swamy Laxminarayan, Joseph D. Bronzino, Jan E. W. Beneken, Shiro Usai, Richard D. Jones" The Biomedical Engineering Handbook: Second Edition. Ed. Joseph D. Bronzino Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000
The Role of Professional Societies in Biomedical Engineering
New Jersey Instituteof Technology
Biomedical Engineering Societies in the World
American Institute for Medical and Biological Engineering (AIMBE) • IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society (EMBS) • Canadian Medical and Biological Engineering Society • European Society for Engineering in Medicine (ESEM) • French Groups for Medical and Biological Engineering • International Federation for Medical andBiological Engineering (IFMBE) • International Union for Physics and Engineering Sciences in Medicine (IUPESM) • International Council of Scientiﬁc Unions (ICSU) • Biomedical Engineering Societies in Japan • BME Activities in Australia and New Zealand • Bioengineering in Latin America
Joseph D. Bronzino
Trinity College/Biomedical Engineering Alliance for Connecticut (BEACON)
Jan E. W.Beneken
Eindhoven University of Technology
Toyohashi University of Technology
Richard D. Jones
Professionals have been deﬁned as an aggregate of people ﬁnding identity in sharing values and skills absorbed during a common course of intensive training. Parsons  stated that one determines whether or not individuals are professionals byexamining whether or not they have internalized certain given professional values. Friedson  redeﬁned Parson’s deﬁnition by noting that a professional is someone who has internalized professional values and is to be recruited and licensed on the basis of his or her technical competence. Furthermore, he pointed out that professionals generally accept scientiﬁc standards in their work,restrict their work activities to areas in which they are technically competent, avoid emotional involvement, cultivate objectivity in their work, and put their clients’ interests before their own. The concept of a profession that manages technology encompasses three occupational models: science, business, and profession. Of particular interest in the contrast between science and profession. Science isseen as the pursuit of knowledge, its value hinging on providing evidence and communicating with colleagues. Profession, on the other hand, is viewed as providing a service to clients who have problems they cannot handle themselves. Science and profession have in common the exercise of some knowledge, skill, or expertise. However, while scientists practice their skills and report their results toknowledgeable colleagues, professionals—such as lawyers, physicians, and engineers—serve lay clients. To protect both the professional and the client from the consequences of the layperson’s lack of knowledge, the practice of the profession is regulated through such formal institutions as state licensing. Both professionals and scientists must persuade their clients to accept their ﬁndings.Professionals endorse and follow a speciﬁc
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code of ethics to serve society. On the other hand, scientists move their colleagues to accept their ﬁndings through persuasion [Goodman, 1989]. Consider, for example, the medical profession. Its members are trained in caring for the sick, with the primary goal of healing them. These professionals not only have a responsibility ofthe creation, development, and implementation of that tradition, they also are expected to provide a service to the public, within limits, without regard of self-interest. To ensure proper service, the profession itself closely monitors licensing and certiﬁcation. Thus medical professionals themselves may be regarded as a mechanism of social control. However, this does not mean that other...
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