I. COLOMBIAN AND ISRAEL ISTTITUTIONAL COMPARISON
Although Colombian and Israel are thousands of kilometers far away each other and theirs historical , commercial issues , per capita GDP or population numbers, haven’t been closely related , both of them have common problems and opportunities in the global economy arena. (See Table N 1 to see the economic and social indicators). Let us findsome similarities and differences in the institutional structures handled by each one.
1. Political and Trade institutions
The government System handle by Colombia is a Republic, as like Israel (See Chart N1 its government structure) although Israel is defined as a State it is actually handled as Republic. Israel is a secular democracy whose parliament (Knesset) is elected through generalelections every four years, unless the Knesset or Prime Minister decide to hold early elections. Under certain circumstances, the Knesset can also serve for more than four years.
In Colombia case, the president is the head of the government. Meanwhile, in Israel the function of the President of the State is primarily a representative, non-partisan one. He is elected by the Knesset every seven years.The president is the head of the state, but the president office is mainly ceremonial and his duties are defined by law. They include his designating a Knesset member to form a new government; accepting credentials of foreign envoys; signing treaties and laws adopted by the Knesset; formally appointing judges, the Governor of the Bank of Israel and heads of Israel's diplomatic missions abroad, onthe recommendation of the appropriate bodies; and pardoning prisoners and commuting sentences on the advice of the Minister of Justice. The President is elected by a simple majority of the Knesset and is nominated on the basis of his personal stature and contribution to the state.
The legislative branch in Colombia is handle by a bicameral congress and in Israel the Knesset (Israel's parliament,which elected every 4 years) operates in plenary sessions and through its standing committees. In plenary sessions, general debates are conducted on government policy and activity, as well as on legislation. While the executive Branch is handle by the government (a new Government is formed after elections. The President designates, after consultations, one Knesset member with the responsibility offorming the Government and becoming its Prime Minister).
In the other hand the judicial Branch in Colombia is managed by the Supreme Court, the Council of the State and the Superior Judicial Council. While in Israel, The absolute independence of the judiciary is guaranteed by law. Magistrate and district courts exercise jurisdiction in civil and criminal cases, while juvenile, traffic, military,labor and municipal appeal courts deal with matters coming under their respective competence. There is no trial by jury in Israel. In matters of personal status, such as marriage, divorce, and maintenance, guardianship and the adoption of minors, jurisdiction is vested in the judicial institutions of the respective religious communities: the rabbinical courts, the Moslem religious courts (shariacourts), the religious courts of the Druze and the juridical institutions of the Christian communities in Israel.
The Supreme Court, has nationwide jurisdiction. It is the highest court of appeal on rulings of lower tribunals. In its function as the High Court of Justice, the Supreme Court hears petitions against any government body or agent, and is the court of first and last instance. Althoughlegislation is wholly within the competence of the Knesset, the Supreme Court can and does call attention to the desirability of legislative changes; sitting as the High Court of Justice, it has the authority to determine whether a law properly conforms with the Basic Laws of the state.
Although, the Democratic path in Colombia has more than hundred year and Israel was established with a...
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