ORIGIN AND HISTORY OF THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
English is a Germanic language of the Indo-European family and today is the second most spoken language in the world after Chinese. However, English is the language most widespread worldwide and is on track to become the universal language. Here some of the reasons for this supremacy over other languages like French, Spanish and Arabic:- Is the official language or co-official in more than 45 countries.
- Half of all business deals are conducted in English.
- Two thirds of the scientific studies are written in English.
- Over 70% of all emails are written and conducted in English.
- It is the language par excellence of the science of our day: the computer.
- Most international tourism, aviation and diplomacy areconducted in English.
- In addition, English is present in the cultural, social, political and economic status of most countries in the world.
Interestingly we note that more people live in China speak English than in the United States.
ORIGIN AND HISTORY
The history of English can be described from the arrival of three Germanic tribes to the British Isles in the years 500 BC LosAngles, Saxons and Jutes crossed the North Sea from what is now known as Denmark and northern Germany. The Angles were named due to their homeland Engle or Angels. They called their own language English word that led to English or English.
Before the arrival of Germanic tribes, the inhabitants of Britain spoke a Celtic language of origin. These people were forced to move to Wales, Cornwall andScotland, which is why the Celtic was moved quickly. One group migrated to the coast of Brittany, where their descendants, even today, speak Breton language of Celtic origin.
The show's oldest written English is Anglo-Saxon inscription dated between 450 and 480 BC. During the following centuries, and as the Germanic tribes swept through the country, developed four dialects:
· Northumbrian inNorthumbria, north of the Humber River.
· Mercian in the Kingdom of Mercia, in the central part of the current England.
· West Saxon in the Kingdom of Wessex, in the southwest.
· Kentish in Kent in the southeast.
During the years 700 and 800, culture and language of Northumbria dominated Britain. The invasions of the Vikings in the 900s ended that domination, and also brought thedestruction of Mercia. Only Wessex remained as an independent kingdom.
By the tenth century, the dialect of the West Saxons became the official language of Britain. There are samples of Old English dating from this period and is mostly written using the runic alphabet, which originated in the Scandinavian languages.
The Latin alphabet was brought by Christian missionaries from Ireland and is whatremains today the English writing system.
The Old English vocabulary consisted of a mixture of Anglo-Saxon words with words borrowed from the Scandinavian languages (Danish and Norwegian) and Latin. Thus, the introduced Latin to English words like street (street), kitchen (kitchen), cheese (cheese), wine (wine), angel (angel), Bishop (bishop), among others. The Vikings meanwhile added Norwegianwords as heaven (sky), eggs (egg), skin (skin), window (window), spouse (husband), ability (skill), odd (odd), get (get) give (give), take (take), call (call). The Celtic words still exist, mainly in rivers and place names (Devon, Dover, Kent, Trent, Severn, Avon, Thames).
Many pairs of words in English and Norwegian coexisted giving us two words with the same or similar meaning. Examples:Norwegian English
In 1066 the Normans conquered Britain. The French became the language of the Norman aristocracy and therefore added more words to English. More pairs of similar words arose.
Ire wrath / anger
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