2-Summary of approaches to education: costructivism, behaviorism, cognitivism, and humanistic theories.
Constructivism is a theory of learning base on the idea that knowledge isconstructed by the knower based on mental activity.
Learners are considered to be active organisms seeking meaning. Construction of meaning may bear little relationship to reality ( as in the naivetheories of children ), but will become increasing more complex, differentiated and realistic as time goes on.
Constructivism explains how knowledge is constructed on the knower mind and he bases it onhis own experiences to construct it.
The learner is building an internal representation of knowledge, a personal interpretation of experience. This representation is constantly open to change, itsstructure and linkages forming the foundation to which other knowledge structures appended.
Learning is an active process in meaning is developed on the basis of experience…Conceptual growth comes fromthe sharing of multiple perspectives and simultaneous changing of our internal representations in response to those perspectives as well as through cumulative experience.
Thus the constructivism canbe use in students by constructing knowledge through experiences, activities, etc.
Behaviourists regard all behaviour as a response to a stimulus. They assume that what we do isdetermined by the environment we are in, which provides stimuli to which we respond, and the
environments we have been in in the past, which caused us to learn to respond to stimuli in
particularways. Behaviourists are unique amongst psychologists in believing that it is unnecessary
to speculate about internal mental processes when explaining behaviour: it is enough to know
which stimulielicit which responses. Behaviourists also believe that people are born with only a
handful of innate reflexes (stimulus-response units that do not need to be learned) and that all of a
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