2. Statements in indirect speech: Changes
1. Changes in the tense of the reported verb. (exceptions)
2. Changes in pronouns
3. Changes in adverbs and adverbial phrases.
4. Some other changes
3. Questions in indirect speech
1. Yes/No questions
2. Information questions
4. Commands in indirect speech.
5.Suggestions, offers and requests in indirect speech.
6. Exclamations in indirect speech.
7. “Yes” and “No” in indirect speech.
8. The modal auxiliaries in indirect speech.
9. Introductory verbs.
10. Mixed exercises on indirect speech.
When one wishes to report what someone says, or has said, two ways are open to one, either to give the exact words: DIRECT SPEECH,or to adapt the words according to the circumstances in which they are quoted: INDIRECT SPEECH.
In direct speech we repeat the original speaker’s exact words
E.g. “I have lost my umbrella”, he said.
The message is placed between inverted commas. The reporting clause (he said), in direct speech may occur before, within, or after the speech itself.
In the case ofindirect speech, the words of the speaker are subordinated, in the form of a “that-clause”, and incorporated into the structure of the main sentence. As in indirect speech you are generally informing someone else of what happened, often in a different place and usually on a different day, all pronouns change, almost all verb tenses except conditional and past perfect change and all words referring to aparticular time or place change. There are also in some circumstances changes in word order (interrogative sentences), and even semantical changes in the reported verb (go – come). All this on condition that the introductory verb is in the past tense (or in the `past perfect tense), but when the introductory verb is in the present, present perfect or future, direct statements can be reportedwithout any changes of tense.
E.g. He says: “The train will be late”. – He says that the train will be late
He said: “The train will be late”. – He said the the train would be late.
a. Verdades universales: No debe haber cambios en los tiempos verbales cuando una frase expresa un hecho supuestamente universal y no aplicable solamente al tiempo en la que se dijo.Socrates said, “Virtue is knowledge” Socrates said that virtue is knowledge
b. Acciones habituales: Una acción habitual es algo que normalmente no cambia
He said,”I get up at seven everyday” He said he gets up at seven everyday
c. Frases condicionales: Las frases condicionales que implican una condicion improbable (Tipo II) o imposibles (Tipo III) tampoco cambianen estilo indirecto.
He said, “ If he came I would be surprised”
He said that if he came he would be surprised
Cambios en los pronombres
Los pronombres personales y los adjetivos y pronombres posesivos cambian de primera o segunda persona a tercera.
They said, “ We’ve brought our books; the books on the desk are ours”
They said that they had brought thair books and they saidthat the book on the desk were theirs.
Además, observa como cambian también this y these que cambian a that y those respectivamente
He said, “These are my books” He said that those were his book
Cambios en los adverbios y frases adverbiales:
Estilo Directo Estilo indirecto
Today that day
Yesterday the day before/the previous day
Tomorrowthe day after/the next day/the following day
Next week/year the following week/year
Last week/year the previous week/year
He said, “I’ll see you tomorrow”
He said he would see him the following day
Estilo Directo Estilo indirecto
He said, ”I saw him four days ago”
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