VISUAL CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS - ASTM D 2488
1) Determine the color, odor (if unusual), moisture (dry, moist, or wet), and maximum particle size of the entire sample.
2) Estimate thepercentage of each; gravel, sands, and fines to the nearest 5%. The sum must add up to 100%. (If one group is present but 50% fines) or coarse-grained ( % sand.
Soil is sand (S) if % gravel (% sand.
2) Soil is clean if % fines ( 5%
3) Soil is well-graded (GW or SW) if it has a wide range of particles sizes and substantial amounts of intermediate particles sizes,otherwise it is poorly-graded (GP or SP).
4) If percent fines ( 15%, soil is gravel wit fines or sand with fines. Use identification methods for fine-grained soils to determine whether soil isclayey (GC or SC) or silty (GM or SM).
5) If soil has 10% fines, give dual identification using two symbols with a hyphen "-" in between.
a. First symbol for clean gravel or sand (GW,GP, SW, SP).
b. Second symbol for gravel or sand with fines (GC, GM, SC, SM).
c. The group name is the name for the first symbol plus the word "with clay" or "with silt".
6)If soil is predominantly sand or gravel but contains ( 15% of the other coarse-grained constituent, the word "with gravel" or "with sand" are added to the group name.
7) Determine theangularity of the soil particles.
GENERIC SOIL DESCRIPTOIN (see appendix X1 for examples)
Group name (group symbol) - %'s of gravel, sand and fines (with descriptions of hardness andangularity for coarse-grained soils, with descriptions of plasticity, dry strength, dilatancy and toughness for fine-grained soils), color, (odor if unusual), moisture (dry, moist, wet), maximum size.NOTES
1) For borderline soils, use a borderline symbol (e.g., CL/CH)
2) For intact samples, include a description of the consistency, structure, cementation, layering, etc.
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