ISSN 1660-3397 www.mdpi.com/journal/marinedrugs Article
Functional Feed Assessment on Litopenaeus vannamei Using 100% Fish Meal Replacement by Soybean Meal, High Levels of Complex Carbohydrates and Bacillus Probiotic Strains
Jorge Olmos *, Leonel Ochoa, Jesus Paniagua-Michel and Rosalia Contreras MolecularMicrobiology Laboratory, Department of Marine Biotechnology, Centro de Investigació n Cientí y de Educació Superior de Ensenada (CICESE), Ensenada, B.C., Mexico; fica n E-Mails: email@example.com (L.O.); firstname.lastname@example.org (J.P.-M.); email@example.com (R.C.) * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; Tel.: +52-(646)-175-05-00. Received: 21 March 2011; inrevised form: 3 May 2011 / Accepted: 24 May 2011 / Published: 17 June 2011
Abstract: Functional feed supplemented with alternative-economic nutrient sources (protein, carbohydrates, lipids) and probiotics are being considered in shrimp/fish aquaculture production systems as an option to increase yield and profits and to reduce water pollution. In this study the probiotic potential to formulatefunctional feeds have been evaluated using four dietary treatments: Treatment 1 (B + Bs); Bacillus subtilis potential probiotic strain was supplemented to a soybeanmeal (SBM)—carbohydrates (CHO) basal feed. Treatment 2 (B + Bm); Bacillus megaterium potential probiotic strain was supplemented to the same SBM-CHO basal feed. In Treatment 3 (B); SBM-CHO basal feed was not supplemented with probioticstrains. Treatment 4 (C); fishmeal commercial feed (FM) was utilized as positive control. Feeding trials evaluated the survival, growth, and food conversion ratio and stress tolerance of juvenile Litopenaeus vannamei (Boone) Pacific white shrimp. Best overall shrimp performance was observed for animals fed with Treatment 1 (B+Bs); additionally, stress tolerance and hemolymph metabolites also showed thebest performance in this treatment. SBM-CHO basal feed not supplemented with probiotic strains (B) presented smaller growth and lower feed conversion ratio (FCR). Shrimps fed with the fishmeal commercial feed (C) presented the lowest stress tolerance to high ammonia and low oxygen levels. Specifically selected B. subtilis strains are recommended to formulate functional and economical feedscontaining high levels of vegetable; protein and carbohydrates as main dietary sources in L. vannamei cultures.
Mar. Drugs 2011, 9 Keywords: Bacillus; probiotics; shrimp; functional feeds; soybean meal
1. Introduction Global population demand for aquatic food products is growing in importance; however fisheries capture production has leveled off and most of the main fishing areas havereached their maximum potential . Due to this, fishmeal prices have increased considerably in recent years. In addition, concern has also arisen about the negative impact of fishmeal production on global fisheries ecology and on the environment [2,3]. Aquaculture, probably the fastest growing food-producing sector, presents the greatest potential to meet demands for aquatic food supply. However, inorder to accomplish these goals, the sector will face significant challenges to increase aquaculture profitability. Cultured species depend on our knowledge of nutrition, biochemistry, physiology and genetics, among others. Feeding represents 40 to 60% of total production cost in shrimp farms; therefore, new varieties of feed formulations must be directed to be well-balanced and inexpensive diets. Use of animal protein sources, such as fishmeal in shrimp feeds, is expected to be considerably reduced as a consequence of increasing economical, environmental and safety issues [5–8]. Partial or complete fishmeal substitution of by-product meals by vegetable protein and carbohydrate sources is a major concern to the field [9,10]. Soybean meal (SBM) has been one of the most studied...