Topic: Enzymes and industry
Teacher’s name: Lopez, Anabella
What are enzymes?
Enzymes are proteins producedby living cells for the purpose of regulating metabolic, biochemical reactions in living organisms. They have highly specialized catalytic functions. Enzymes are responsible for many essentialbiochemical reactions in microorganisms, plants, animals, and human beings. Enzymes are essential for all metabolic processes, but are not alive. Although like all other proteins, enzymes are composed ofamino acids, they differ in function in that they have the unique ability to facilitate biochemical reactions without undergoing change themselves. This catalytic capability is what makes enzymes unique.Enzymes are natural protein molecules that act as highly efficient catalysts in biochemical reactions, that is, they help a chemical reaction take place quickly and efficiently. Enzymes not only workefficiently and rapidly, they are also biodegradable. Enzymes are highly efficient in increasing the reaction rate of biochemical processes that otherwise proceed very slowly, or in some cases, not atall.
The beauty of an enzyme is not only the increased reaction rate it provides, but also its ability to remain undestroyed by the reaction itself. It allows enzymes to be used over and overagain. An enzyme works only on a specific substance, called a substrate, which fits perfectly into the enzyme’s activity site.
How are enzymes used?
Enzymes play a diversified role in many aspectsof everyday life including aiding in digestion, the production of food and several industrial applications. Enzymes are natural catalysts. Humankind has used them for thousands of years to carry outimportant chemical reactions for making products such as cheese, beer, and wine. Bread and yogurt also owe their flavor and texture to a range of enzyme producing organisms that were domesticated many...