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Chapter 22 review
1) On which of the following did Linnaeus base his classification system?
* taxonomy
2) Catastrophism, meaning the regular occurrence of geological or meteorological disturbances (catastrophes), was Cuvier's attempt to explain the existence of
* The fossil record
3) Which of the following events, as described here, is most in agreement with the idea ofcatastrophism?
* the demise of the dinosaurs, and various other groups, by the impact of a large extraterrestrial body with Earth
4) What was the prevailing notion prior to the time of Lyell and Darwin?
* Earth is 6,000 years old, and populations are unchanging
5) During a study session about evolution, one of your fellow students remarks, "The giraffe stretched its neck whilereaching for higher leaves; its offspring inherited longer necks as a result." Which statement would you use to correct this student's misconception?
* Characteristics acquired during an organism's life are generally not passed on through genes

6) Which explains variations in homologous structures?
* Variations in the development of the structures occur as the embryos grow
7) Thetheory of evolution is most accurately described as
* an overarching explanation, supported by much evidence, for how populations change over time.
8) Darwin's mechanism of natural selection required long time spans in order to modify species. From whom did Darwin get the concept of Earth's ancient age?
* Charles lyell
9) Darwin had initially expected the living plants oftemperate South America to resemble those of temperate Europe, but he was surprised to find that they more closely resembled the plants of tropical South America. The biological explanation for this observation is most properly associated with the field of
* biogeography
10) Who was the naturalist who synthesized a concept of natural selection independently of Darwin?
* Alfred Wallace11) Charles Darwin was the first to propose
* a mechanism for evolution that was supported by evidence
12) In evolutionary terms, the more closely related two different organisms are, the
* more recently they shared a common ancestor.
13) Both Darwin's and Lamarck's ideas regarding evolution suggest which of the following?
* The interaction of organisms with theirenvironment is important in the evolutionary process
14) Natural selection is based on all of the following except
* individuals must adapt to their environment
15) Which of the following represents an idea Darwin took from the writings of Thomas Malthus?
* Populations tend to increase at a faster rate than their food supply
16) It has been observed that organisms on islands aredifferent from, but closely related to, similar forms
* island forms and mainland forms descended from common ancestors.

17) ) Given a population that contains genetic variation, what is the correct sequence of the following events, under the influence of natural selection?
2, 4, 1, 3
1. Differential reproduction occurs.
2. A new selective pressure arises.
3. Allele frequencieswithin the population change.
4. Poorly adapted individuals have decreased survivorship.
18) Structures as different as human arms, bat wings, and dolphin flippers contain many of the same bones, these bones having developed from the same embryonic tissues. How do biologists interpret these similarities?
* by identifying the bones as being homologous by proposing that humans,bats, and dolphins share a common ancestor
by identifying the bones as being homologous by proposing that humans, bats, and dolphins share a 19) Human intestines are held in place by membranes called mesenteries. In bipedal humans, it would be logical for these mesenteries to be attached to the rib cage. Instead, they are attached to the backbone, as they are in quadrupedal mammals....
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