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Christian VIRGUEZ

To this wonderful Country King João VI returned to Europe on 26 April 1821, leaving his elder son Prince Pedro de Alcântara as regent to rule Brazil. The Portuguese government attempted to turn Brazil into a colony once again, thus depriving it of its achievements since 1808. The Brazilians refused to yieldand Prince Pedro stood by them declaring the country's independence from Portugal on 7 September 1822. On 12 October 1822, Pedro was declared the first Emperor of Brazil and crowned Dom Pedro I on 1 December 1822 [1].
At that time almost all Brazilians were in favor of a monarchy and republicanism had little support. The subsequent Brazilian War of Independence spread through almost the entireterritory, with battles in the northern, northeastern, and southern regions. The last Portuguese soldiers surrendered on 8 March 1824 and independence was recognized by Portugal on 29 August 1825.
The first Brazilian constitution was promulgated on 25 March 1824, after its acceptance by the municipal councils across the country.[49][50][51][52] Pedro I abdicated on 7 April 1831 and went to Europe toreclaim his daughter’s crown, leaving behind his five year old son and heir, who was to become Dom Pedro II. As the new emperor could not exert his constitutional prerogatives until he reached maturity, a regency was created.
Disputes between political factions led to rebellions and an unstable, almost anarchical, regency. The rebellious factions, however, were not in revolt against themonarchy, even though some declared the secession of the provinces as independent republics, but only so long as Pedro II was a minor. Because of this, Pedro II was prematurely declared of age and "Brazil was to enjoy nearly half a century of internal peace and rapid material progress.
Brazil won three international wars during the 58-year reign of Pedro II (the Platine War, the Uruguayan War and the Warof the Triple Alliance) and witnessed the consolidation of representative democracy, mainly due to successive elections and unrestricted freedom of the press. Most importantly, slavery was extinguished after a slow but steady process that began with the end of the international traffic in slaves in 1850 and ended with the complete abolition of slavery in 1888. The slave population had been indecline since Brazil's independence: in 1823, 29% of the Brazilian population were slaves but by 1887 this had fallen to 5%.
When the monarchy was overthrown on 15 November 1889 there was little desire in Brazil to change the form of government and Pedro II was at the height of his popularity among his subjects. However, he "bore prime, perhaps sole, responsibility for his own overthrow. After thedeath of his two sons, Pedro believed that "the imperial regime was destined to end with him. He cared little for the regime's fateand so neither did anything, nor allowed anyone else to do anything, to prevent the military coup, backed by former slave owners who resented the abolition of slavery.
The "early republican government was little more than a military dictatorship. The army dominatedaffairs both at Rio de Janeiro and in the states. Freedom of the press disappeared and elections were controlled by those in power".In 1894 the republican civilians rose to power, opening a "prolonged cycle of civil war, financial disaster, [2] and government incompetence. By 1902, the government began a return to the policies pursued during the Empire, policies that promised peace and order at homeand a restoration of Brazil's prestige abroad. And was successful in negotiating several treaties that expanded (with the purchase of Acre) and secured the Brazilian boundaries.
In the 1920s the country was plagued by several rebellions caused by young military officers. By 1930, the regime was weakened and demoralized, which allowed the defeated presidential candidate Getúlio Vargas to lead a...
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