Comparative review air pollution paris - mexico

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* English Writing Skills

Martin SERRE

Comparative review of air pollution in Paris and Mexico City

Table of Contents

I. Introduction 3
II. Air Pollution in Paris 3
A. Data and facts 3
B. Policy and its effects 4
III. Air Pollution in Mexico City 5
A. Data and facts 5
B. Policy and its effects 5
IV. Comparison and synthesis 6
V. Conclusion 6VI. Bibliography 7
VII. Appendix 8
1. Graphics of pollutant concentration evolution in Paris Region 8
2. Maps of pollutants emissions in Paris Region 10
3. Graphics of pollutants concentrations evolution in Mexico City 13
4. Graphics of pollution sources in Mexico City 16
5. Mexico City geographical situation 17

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Introduction

Since the end of the Second World War, wehave begun to be concerned about the health effects of air pollution. For now, the effects on health are not completely known and understood, however we know that pollution peak events does have acute effects on human health. By looking at the cities concerned, Paris and Mexico City, we are going to try to assess the evolution of air pollution levels and the effectiveness of the policies editedto reduce them. We will first examine each city, the policies involved and their effects. Next we will compare them in order to draw a conclusion on the efficiency of each policy.

Air Pollution in Paris

Data and facts

Paris is the capital of France, and the major city of the country. Its industrialization started in the 19th century along with numerous European major cities. The processhas been quite linear with no noticeable extreme development periods. The same statement is valid for population growth. However, this growth may have stayed steady; it was relatively important due to rural exodus. Geographically, the city is not surrounded by any high relief; the winds can easily go through the city which evacuates the pollution from the centre but drives it directly ontoresidential areas surrounding the city. French citizens have a strong habit of using their car as they consider them as a part of the house, they are sacred. The numerous habits that will have to change are a serious issue to deal with, especially in regard of how tricky such an attempt is in France. (Wikipedia, 2010)
* Surface : 2723 km2
* Population : 11,769,433 (Wikipedia, 2010)
Theoverall levels of air pollutants in Paris during the last 15 years have been decreasing for most pollutants, some of them drastically (Benzene, SO2). Particulate matter (PM xx) have remained steady or in a light increase, and ozone concentrations have been increasing. See Appendix 1. (AIRPARIF, 2009)
The principal sources of pollution are heavy industry, road traffic, services and residential, andenergy production (essentially for SO2) (Fig. II1). The maps available in Appendix 2 will show the road traffic as main source of some pollutants. (AIRPARIF, 2005).

Fig. II1 Amount of pollutants produced annually by activity sector, the bottom line shows the totals. (AIRPARIF, 2005)

No matter what city is chosen, real and quantifiable effects of air pollution on health still need furtherinvestigation to be correctly assessed. However, there is no doubt that many adverse effects are present. Various studies from all over the world have associated high pollution with a rise in hospital admissions and unfortunately, deaths, especially since the most famous air pollution event: the 1952 London smog episode. (Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory)

Policy and its effects

During thelast quarter of the twentieth century and the early twenty first century, a great number of laws and regulations were voted in France in order to improve public health and environmental care. Paris municipality has decided four years ago to launch a series of measures and controls to enhance air quality in Paris (Atmospheric Protection Plan, APP), following the 1996 “LAURE” law which impose the...
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