Led to the end of the Sandinista Movement in Nicaragua by the Contras
The conflict occurred in Nicaragua is an event in which both superpowers, USA and the USSR had a significant influence over the outcome of the event, one more directly than the other. The results of these confrontations caused a profoundimpact in the development of the Cold War, changing drastically the policies implemented by both countries and putting an end to the détente giving a start to a period known as the “second cold war” started by president Ronald Reagan, and also revealing how USSR was slowly declining, losing their control over the Third World Countries and their ability to expand communism, which brought as aconsequence the defeat the left-wing group known as the Sandinistas suffered against the USA supported rebel group, the Contras.
The Sandinista National Liberation Front was created in 1962 by Carlos Fonseca, as an opposition to the cruel regime dictated by the Somoza dynasty, which had counted with the support of the USA at that time. The Sandinistas wanted to fight against the corruptionin Nicaragua at that time that was taking over 50% of the country. The Somoza dynasty had been in command for the last thirty year and came to power with the help of the USA, they were known for being authoritarian and brutal, and they has complete control over every aspect of the country. People started realizing that the Sandinistas were the only hope they had to end with the brutaldictatorship. The extreme general disappointment with Somoza that led to the Roman Catholic Church and the USA withdrawing their support was the murder of the editor of the newspaper editor of “La Prensa” and the execution, raping and torture that villagers suffered from Somoza’s people. The Contras were able to overthrow Somoza and take command in Nicaragua in 1979, with support from USSR. Somoza escapedto Paraguay and was later believed to have been assassinated by a liberal Argentinean group.
This act was labeled by the president of the United States at that time, Jimmy Carter, as a “communist act” and blamed Cuba, and through Cuba the USSR, for influencing them. President Carter was torn between the decision of intervening in Nicaragua to contain communism or to maintain détente andhe wanted especially to respect his most important policy of Human Rights above all, because as he once said: “Human rights is the soul of our foreign policy, because human rights is the very soul of our sense of nationhood.”, which would mean not intervening with force and try to reach a decision through means of peace. This is the main reason as to why Carter didn’t get involved in Nicaragua. Heknew he could not support Somoza, and his regime because it clearly violated human rights so fighting against the Sandinistas would be portrayed as a support to Somoza, which would go against his beliefs, but not fighting against the Sandinistas would mean that he is not fighting against the communist spread, which was also crucial to the USA as Nicaragua had a very important strategic positionand, just like Cuba, it was on their “backyard”. People often thought that the Human Rights policy was weak and wasn’t effective against communism.
USA’s attitude towards the conflict took a drastic turn when Ronald Reagan came to power in 1980. Reagan’s policies went against everything that was established previously by Carter, they were qualifies as aggressive, imperialistic and warprovocative, but he was defended by conservatives saying that it was necessary to be this way to protect US security interests. He was a Republican and a strict anticommunist whose major objective is to reach peace by containing communism, and to do this he is willing to fight any country that has adopted soviet politics, condemning the Sandinistas for joining Cuba in supporting the Marxist...