# Distillation

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Distillation

Index

Title Page

• Introduction ………………………………………………………… 3
• Purpose …………………………………………………………….. 4
• Hypothesis …………………………………………………………. 4
• Experimental Activity ………………………………………..……. 5
• Flowchart …………………………………………………………… 5
• Results …………………………………………………………….. 6
1. Data table …………………………………………………… 6
2. Graphic ml/ temperatura …………………………………... 6
3.Density ………………………………………………………. 6
4. Windisch table ………………………………………………. 7
• Discussion ………………………………………………………….. 8
1. Conclusion ……………………………………………………. 8
2. Future studies ………………………………………………... 9
• References ………………………………………………………..…. 10

INTRODUCTION

Background Information
In simple distillation, one of the criteria of purity used for liquids is the boiling point, which is measureddirectly on the thermometer at the time of distillation.
Distillation is used for the separation of some reaction mixtures, in this case for example you can observe the reaction heat applied, and watch the substances It’s separated in this experiment.
Distillation is based on two physical processes, boiling and condensation. The vapors above a mixture generally have a composition different fromthis and hence the condensate from these vapors also has a different composition from the initial mixture.

The compounds to be separated by distillation must possess different vapor pressures and therefore different boiling points. Neither should they suffer decomposition during the process.

All liquid have a vapor pressure P ° temperature dependent. The temperature at which P ° = P atm(atmospheric pressure) is called the boiling temperature of the substance concerned (boiling point).

If we have a mixture of two substances: N1 moles of 1 and N 2 moles of 2, the partial pressures of 1 and 2 in mixture are dependent on the molar ratio in which 1 and 2 are.

A measure of this relationship is obtained by defining the mole fractions x1 and x2

The mole fractionscan, at a given temperature T, calculate the partial pressure P1 of compound 1 in the mixture as:

y (Raoult law)

P°1 and P°2 = vapor pressures of pure liquids 1 and 2 at temperature T. The total vapor pressure over the mixture of 1 and 2 will be:

(Dalton Law)

The boiling temperature of a mixture is defined as: temperature at which the total pressure
(PT = P1 + P2) isequal to the pressure outside (P atm°, lower pressure vacuum distillation)
Phase diagram showing the relationship of temperature with the mole fraction: It is assumed that there is a mixture whose composition is x1 = x2 = 0.3 and 0.7. The boiling temperature of the mixture are at the point of intersection of that curve with 1 molar fraction of the liquid (Abt = atmospheric boiling temperature).

Atthis temperature the curve corresponds Abt vapor composition Pb X1 =0.7 and X2 = 0.3.

Purpose
It will learn to use a simple distillation technique, also known material for distillation. Applied to determine the density of a liquid to determine the alcohol content of wine.
Analyzing the possible causes that could lead to an incorrect result. It will learn to talk about a result.Hypothesis
What is the purpose of this experiment?
The purpose in this simple experiment is that you can see as are the procedures and constant observation for obtain the degree of wine, that’s very important, because you can know also the density of the wine and follow the percent of degree of alcohol in some volume of wine.

We want prove if the established velocity of procedures according thestandards of relation between volume distilled and temperature with the ethanol, therefore hope to get result more like the predefined standards.

Experimental Activity

• Determining the alcohol degree content of wine.
The determination of the alcoholic strength of wine can be made by the distillation method.
1. Were taken 100 ml of wine at 15ºC and poured into a distillation flask of 250ml....