El despertar del valiente

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Reported speech - English Grammar
Statements
1) If the sentence starts in the present, there is no backshift of tenses in Reported speech.
Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan says that she works in an office.

2) If the sentence starts in the past, there is often backshift of tenses in Reported speech. (see: Note)
Example: Susan: "I work in an office." Susan said that she worked inan office.
Backshift of tenses |
from | to |
Simple Present | Simple Past |
Simple Past | Past Perfect |
Present Perfect | |
Past Perfect | |
will | would |
Progressive forms |
am/are/is | was/were |
was/were | had been |
has been | |
had been | |

Backshift of tenses |
from | to |
Peter: "I work in the garden." | Peter said that he worked in the garden. |Peter: "I worked in the garden." | Peter said that he had worked in the garden. |
Peter: "I have worked in the garden." | |
Peter: "I had worked in the garden." | |
Peter: "I will work in the garden." | Peter said that he would work in the garden. |
Peter: "I can work in the garden." | Peter said that he could work in the garden. |
Peter: "I may work in the garden." | Peter said that hemight work in the garden. |
Peter: "I would work in the garden."
(could, might, should, ought to) | Peter said that he would work in the garden.
(could, might, should, ought to) |
Progressive forms |
Peter: "I'm working in the garden." | Peter said that he was working in the garden. |
Peter: "I was working in the garden." | Peter said that he had been working in the garden. |
Peter: "Ihave been working in the garden." | |
Peter: "I had been working in the garden." | |
If the sentence contains an expression of time, you must change it as well.
Peter: "I worked in the garden yesterday."
Peter said that he had worked in the garden the day before.
Shifting of expressions of time
this (evening) | that (evening) |
today/this day | that day |
these (days) | those (days)|
now | then |
(a week) ago | (a week) before |
last weekend | the weekend before / the previous weekend |
here | there |
next (week) | the following (week) |
tomorrow | the next/following day |
Note:
In some cases the backshift of tenses is not necessary, e.g. when statements are still true.
John: "My brother is at Leipzig university."
John said that his brother was at Leipziguniversity. or
John said that his brother is at Leipzig university.
or
Mandy: "The sun rises in the East."
Mandy said that the sun rose in the East. or
Mandy said that the sun rises in the East.

Finish the sentences using Reported speech. Always change the tense, although it is sometimes not necessary.

Example: Peter: "I clean the black shoes."
Peter told me that____________________________

Answer: Peter told me that he cleaned the black shoes.
1) John: "Mandy is at home."
John said that . |
2) Max: "Frank often reads a book."
Max told me that . |
3) Susan: "I'm watching TV."
Susan said to me that . |
4) Simon: "David was ill."
Simon said that . |
5) Peggy: "The girls helped in the house."
Peggy told me that . |
6) Richard: "I am going to ride a skateboard."Richard said to me that . |
7) Stephen and Claire: "We have cleaned the windows."
Stephen and Claire told me that . |
8) Charles: "I didn't have time to do my homework."
Charles remarked that . |
9) Mrs Jones: "My mother will be 50 years old."
Mrs Jones told me that . |
10) Jean: "The boss must sign the letter."
Jean said that . |

Reported questions
If you put a question intoReported speech there are some steps which are the same like in statements: (changing of the person, backshift of tenses, changing of expressions of time).
In Reported speech there is no question anymore, the sentence becomes a statement.
That's why the word order is: subject - verb
Question without question words (yes/no questions):
Peter: "Do you play football?" - Peter asked me whether (if) I...
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