1. After the past tense reporting verb the time changes.
‘’Do you like visiting old buildings?’’, asked Helen. /Helen asked me if I liked visiting old buildings.
2. Words referring to time and place change too.
‘’I saw your mother yesterday’’, said Jamie. /Jamie said that he had seen my mother the day before.
3. There are two types of questions (reported with if and withquestion words). VERB IS NOT INTO QUESTION FORM!!!!!!
4. Sometimes the reported speech is introduced by reporting verb (suggest + ing, deny+ ing, apologise for + ing, remind Jack to + infinitive, offer to + infinitive, admit to + ing, doubt + weather, advise Jim to + infinitive, accuse Jim of + ing, confess to + ing, decide to + infinitive, agree to + infinitive, refuse to + infinitive)
Wishes andrelated forms
1. Wishes about the present use past tense form: I wish I didn’t have so much work to do. (now)
2. Wishes about the past use past perfect form: I wish I hadn’t eaten so much. (it happened)
3. Wishes with WOULD refer to annoying habits (I wish you wouldn’t shout all the time.) or to something you would like to happen (I wish my boss would give me some more responsibility)
4.Wishes with COULD refer to future events (I wish you could meet me next Friday) or to some generally difficult or impossible wishes (I wish I could fly).
5. After expressions It’ (high) time, I’d rather, I’d sooner we use past simple form of the verb. (It’s time you left. I’d rather you didn’t leave so early. I’d sooner you didn’t buy me a present )
6. Expression I wish can be used with infinitiveand it’s formal way of saying I’d rather. I wish to interview you for the job next weekend.
There are defining and non-defining relative clauses. First type gives us important information about subject or object, and the second one gives us some extra information. They are both introduced by relative pronouns WHO, WHICH, THAT, WHOM, WHOSE… That relative pronoun can be omitted whenthe relative clause refers to object, not subject. (This is the car (that) I used to own. / That’s the woman who bought my car.) In non-defining clauses we cannot use that instead of which. And that cannot be used after a preposition: This is the car which/that I paid 2000 pounds for. This is the car for WHICH I paid 2000 pounds. WHOM is used after preposition: This is a person to whom I sold mycar. WHOSE is used to show belonging: This is Jack, whose sister is staying with us.
Countable and uncountable nouns
Countable nouns have plural and singular form. Uncountable nouns have only singular form and can be counted only by using a phrase a piece of, a bit of…(a piece of advice, an item of news, a flight of stairs, a sheet of paper, head of hair, slice of toast, set of cutlery, clapof tunder)
Typical uncountable nouns: water, air, coffee, plastic, iron, paper, life, freedom, health, time, progress, work, travel, sleep, football, help, research, happiness, anger, honesty, hope, respect, courage, furniture, luggage, accommodation, advice, behavior, business, cash, equipment, furniture, health, homework, information, knowledge, money, permission, rubbish, scenery, traffic,weather, work..
Some of those nouns can be either countable or uncountable: an iron-pegla / iron-gvozdje; a wood- suma/ wood-drvo; a paper- novine/ paper- papir; a chicken- pile; chicken-piletina; a coffee- soljica kafe/ coffee-kafa; a business- posao/business- firma; a gossip-tracara/ gossip-trac; a hair-dlaka/ hair-kosa; a help-pomocnik/ help-pomoc; a toast-zdravica/ toast-tost; a work-delo/work-posao
Plural nouns in English demand verb in plural: clothes, feelings, goods, jeans, means, outskirts, surroundings, thanks, cattle, police, people
Some nouns use verb in singular and in plural depending weather we think of a group or an individual: army, audience, class, company, crew, crowd, data, family, group, media, press, public, staff, team, committee, choir, club, orchestra…