EIGHT SUMMARY: BLOOM¨S TAXONOMY
A REVISION OF BLOOMM¨S TAXONOMY: AN OVERVIEW
TheTaxonomy of Educational Objectives is a scheme for classifying educational goals, objectives, and, most recently, standards. It provides an organizational structure that gives a commonly understoodmeaning to objectives classified in one of its categories, thereby enhancing communication. The original Taxonomy consisted of six categories, nearly all with subcategories. They were arranged in acumulative hierarchical framework; achievement of the next more complex skill or ability required achievement of the prior one. The original Taxonomy volume emphasized the assessment of learning with manyexamples of test items (largely multiple choices) provided for each category.
Our revision of the original Taxonomy is a two-dimensional framework: Knowledge and
Cognitive Processes. The former mostresembles the subcategories of the original Knowledge category. The latter resembles the six categories of the original Taxonomy with the Knowledge category named Remember, the Comprehensioncategory named Understand, Synthesis renamed Create and made the top category, and the remaining categories changed to their verb forms: Apply, Analyze, and Evaluate. They are arranged in a hierarchicalstructure, but not as rigidly as in the original Taxonomy. In combination, the Knowledge and Cognitive Process dimensions form a very useful table, the Taxonomy Table. Using the Table to classifyobjectives, activities, and assessments provides a clear, concise, visual representation of a particular course or unit. Once completed, the entries in the Taxonomy Table can be used to examine relativeemphasis, curriculum alignment, and missed educational opportunities. Based on this examination, teachers can decide where and how to improve the planning of curriculum and the delivery of instruction.