Evaluacion de oportunidades para integracion de biocombustibles en uk

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Evaluating the opportunities for high blend liquid and gaseous biofuel penetration in the UK

Prepared for

Low CVP
by

Study Report

in association with

Version 1.1 Final December 2009

Evaluating the opportunities for high blend liquid & gaseous biofuel penetration in the UK
Study Report
Prepared for Low-CVP by

in association with

Author(s) Quality Control Version DateFile location

Last edited

Tom Parker, Sofia Girnary, Keith O’Connor Alan Lewis 1.1 Final December 2009 \Ttdc01\Company\TTR Projects\Current Projects\LowCVP Biofuels\Technical\reporti ng\LowCVP_biofuels_stu dy report_final v1.1.doc 09 December 2009

This report has been prepared for LowCVP. Transport & Travel Research Ltd cannot accept any responsibility for any use of or reliance on thecontents of the report by any third party.

ISO 9001 ISO 900 1 Registered Firm REGISTERED FIRM
GB2000157

Opportunities for high blend liquid and gaseous biofuel – Final Report

CONTENTS EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Background and purpose of the report Policy context Study scope Potential benefits Costs Effect of Discounting Fuel Duty Effective vehicles and fuel combinations Barriers and Recommendations1 1 1 1 3 6 6 8 9

1 1.1 1.2 1.3

INTRODUCTION Background and purpose Fuels included in the study Contents of this report

13 13 13 14

2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5

SECTOR ANALYSIS Introduction Factors affecting suitability for high-blend biofuels Current status of the UK vehicle parc Rationale for high-blend biofuels Potential for GHG savings

15 15 15 20 33 35

3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6DRIVERS, BARRIERS AND SUPPORT MECHANISMS Introduction Drivers Relevant policies Barriers Support mechanisms Conclusions

38 38 38 40 48 57 77

4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8

OPTIONS ASSESSMENT Introduction Method Bus HGV MGV LGV Car Emissions relevant to local air quality

78 78 78 80 93 106 113 124 136

Transport & Travel Research Ltd

December 2009

Opportunities for highblend liquid and gaseous biofuel – Final Report

4.9 4.10

Analysis of fuel duty to promote uptake of high blend biofuels Summary of results and conclusions

139 146

5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Introduction Potential benefits and cost effectiveness Overcoming barriers to market expansion Vehicles and fuels Future work

150 150 150 153 155 162

A1 A1.1 A1.2A1.3 A1.4 A1.5 A2 A2.1 A2.2 A2.3 A2.4 A3 A3.1 A3.2 A3.3 A3.4

OPTION ASSESSMENT INPUT DATA Toxic emissions Greenhouse gas emissions Fuel consumption data Fuel cost data Vehicle cost data BIODIESEL (FIRST GENERATION) Summary assessment Background Examples of high-blend use Environmental impacts BIOETHANOL Summary assessment of fuel and relevance Background Availability of vehicle and examples ofhigh-blend use Environmental impacts

A1 1 2 4 6 8 A11 11 11 13 14 A15 15 15 15 18

A4 A4.1 A4.2 A4.3 A4.4

BIOMETHANE (COMPRESSED) Summary assessment of fuel and relevance Background Vehicle availability and examples of high-blend use Environmental impacts

A20 20 20 21 23

A5

BIOMETHANE (LIQUEFIED)

A24 24 24

A5.1 Summary assessment of fuel and relevance A5.2 BackgroundTransport & Travel Research Ltd

December 2009

Opportunities for high blend liquid and gaseous biofuel – Final Report

A5.3 Vehicle availability and examples of high-blend use A5.4 Environmental impacts

25 26

A6 A6.1 A6.2 A6.3 A6.4

PURE PLANT OIL Summary assessment of fuel and relevance Background Vehicle availability and examples of high-blend use Environmental impacts

A27 27 2729 30

A7 A7.1 A7.2 A7.3 A7.4 A8 A8.1 A8.2 A8.3 A8.4

BIODIESEL (SECOND GENERATION) Summary assessment of fuel and relevance Background Examples of high-blend products Environmental impacts HYDROGEN Summary assessment of fuel and relevance Background Examples of high-blend use Environmental impacts

A31 31 31 32 33 A34 34 34 35 35

A9 A9.1 A9.2 A9.3 A9.4

E-DIESEL Summary assessment of...
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