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ACI 440.2R-02

Guide for the Design and Construction of Externally Bonded FRP Systems for Strengthening Concrete Structures
Reported by ACI Committee 440
ACI encourages the development and appropriate use of new and emerging technologies through the publication of the Emerging Technology Series. This series presents information and recommendations based on available test data, technicalreports, limited experience with field applications, and the opinions of committee members. The presented information and recommendations, and their basis, may be less fully developed and tested than those for more mature technologies. This report identifies areas in which information is believed to be less fully developed, and describes research needs. The professional using this document shouldunderstand the limitations of this document and exercise judgment as to the appropriate application of this emerging technology.
Sami H. Rizkalla Chair Charles E. Bakis P. N. Balaguru Craig A. Ballinger Lawrence C. Bank Abdeldjelil Belarbi Brahim Benmokrane Gregg J. Blaszak Gordon L. Brown, Jr. Vicki L. Brown Thomas I. Campbell Charles W. Dolan Dat Duthinh Rami M. Elhassan Salem S. Faza Edward R. FyfeDavid M. Gale
*

John P. Busel Secretary Damian I. Kachlakev Vistasp M. Karbhari Howard S. Kliger James G. Korff Michael W. Lee Ibrahim Mahfouz Henry N. Marsh, Jr. Orange S. Marshall Amir Mirmiran Ayman S. Mosallam Antoine E. Naaman Antonio Nanni Kenneth Neale Edward F. O’Neil, III Max L. Porter Morris Schupack David W. Scott Rajan Sen Mohsen A. Shahawy Carol K. Shield Khaled A. Soudki Luc R.Taerwe Jay Thomas Houssam A. Toutanji Taketo Uomoto Miroslav Vadovic David R. Vanderpool Milan Vatovec Stephanie L. Walkup David White

Ali Ganjehlou Duane J. Gee T. Russell Gentry Arie Gerritse Karl Gillette William J. Gold* Charles H. Goodspeed, III Nabil F. Grace Mark F. Green Mark E. Greenwood Doug D. Gremel Michael S. Guglielmo Issam E. Harik Mark P. Henderson Bohdan N. Horeczko SrinivasaL. Iyer

*Co-chairs of the subcommittee that prepared this document. Note: The committee acknowledges the contribution of associate member Paul Kelley.

Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) systems for strengthening concrete structures have emerged as an alternative to traditional strengthening techniques, such as steel plate bonding, section enlargement, and external post-tensioning. FRPstrengthening systems use FRP composite materials as supplemental externally bonded reinforcement. FRP systems offer advantages over traditional strengthening techniques: they are lightweight, relatively easy to install, and are noncorrosive. Due to the characteristics of FRP materials, the behavior of FRP strengthened members, and various issues regarding the use of externally bonded reinforcement, specificguidance on the use of these systems

is needed. This document offers general information on the history and use of FRP strengthening systems; a description of the unique material properties of FRP; and committee recommendations on the engineering, construction, and inspection of FRP systems used to strengthen concrete structures. The proposed guidelines are based on the knowledge gained fromworldwide experimental research, analytical work, and field applications of FRP systems used to strengthen concrete structures. Keywords: aramid fibers; bridges; buildings; carbon fibers; concrete; corrosion; crack widths; cracking; cyclic loading; deflections; development length; earthquake-resistant; fatigue; fiber-reinforced polymers; flexure; glass fiber; shear; stresses; structural analysis;structural design; time-dependent; torsion.

ACI Committee Reports, Guides, Standard Practices, and Commentaries are intended for guidance in planning, designing, executing, and inspecting construction. This document is intended for the use of individuals who are competent to evaluate the significance and limitations of its content and recommendations and who will accept responsibility for the...
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