Formal Operational Period (11 years upward)
-In this stage individuals move beyond concrete experiences and begin to think abstractly, reason logically and draw conclusions from informationavailable as well as apply all these processes to hypothetical situations.
-The abstract quality of the adolescent´s at the formal operational level is evident “in the adolescent´s verbal problem solvingability”.
-Adolescents begin to think more a scientist thinks devising plans to solve problems and systematically testing solutions (they need to isolate and control variables in formingconclusions)
-They also undergo significant changes in their emotional and social lives; they seek to be more grown –up.
-Sense of personal uniqueness and invincibility.
-They want their parents totreat them differently, and their friends become more important than ever.
-And begin to understand abstract concepts such as “freedom” and “love”.
-When emotional issues arise, they often interferewith an adolescent´s ability to think in more complex ways.
-Some adolescents may be able to apply logical operations to school work long before they are able to apply them to personal dilemmas.-In some cases adults show formal operational thought only in the area of training or expertise, a physicist may reason abstractly when solving problems but not while reading poetry.
-During thisstage the young person begins to entertain possibilities for the future and is fascinated with “what they can be”.
-Without the concrete experiences needed to think at the level of abstractionrequired, they often revert to whatever it takes to survive –in most cases. “Memorization” without understanding.
Early Adolescence (12-14)
-Begins to demonstrate formal logical operations inschoolwork. Begins to question authority and society standers. Begins to form and verbalize his/her own thoughts and views on a variety of topics usually more related to his/her own life, such as:...
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