Functional grammar - halliday and hassan

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Halliday and Hassan 1976
Page 1
“a text may be spoken or written, prose or verse, dialogue or monologue. It may be anything form a single proverb to a whole play, from a momentary cry for help to an all-day discussion on a committee.”
A text is a unit of language. It´s best regarded as a semantic unit, related to a clause or sentence not by size but by REALIZATION. A text doesn’t consist ofsentences, it realized by, or encoded in, sentences.
Page 2
The concept of TEXTURE is entirely appropriate to express the property of “being a text”. A text has texture, and this is what distinguishes it from something that is not a text. It derives this texture from the fact that it functions as a unity with respect to its environment.
English has different resources for creating texture.The texture is provided by the cohesive RELATION that exists between (two terms).
Wash and core six cooking apples. Put them into a fireproof dish.
Them in the second sentence refers back to the six cooking apples. In other words, it is anaphoric to the noun phrase in the first sentence. This ANAPHORIC function of them gives cohesion to the two sentences.
Page 17
We have considered cohesionpurely as an anaphoric relation, with a presupposing item presupposing something that has gone before it.
But the presupposition may go in the opposite direction, with the presupposed element following. This is referred to as CATAPHORA.
This is how to get the best result: You let….
An item like this can point forward, deriving its interpretation from something that follows. The colon is usedsolely to signal the cataphora.

Page 3
What is the MEANING of the cohesive relation between them and six cooking apples?
The meaning is that they refer to the same thing. The two items are identical in reference or COREFERENTIAL. The cohesive agency in this instance, that which provides the texture, is the coreferentiality of them and six cooking apples.
Page 3
The term tie is used torefer to “one occurrence of a pair of cohesively related items”.

Lexical cohesion
* LEXICAL COHESION: reiteration (repetition, synonymy, hyponymy, metonymy and antonymy) and collocation
In the example above, there is just one tie, REFERENCE.
Page 4
There are different cohesive ties or types of COHESIVE RELATIONS (page 12: cohesion is a relational concept; it is not the presence of aparticular class of item that is cohesive, but the relation between one item and another):
Grammatical cohesion
* REFERENCE
* SUBSTITUTION
* ELLIPSIS
* CONJUNCTION
The concept of tie makes it possible to analyse a text in terms of its cohesive properties, and gives a systemic account of its patterns of texture.
The word them presupposes for its interpretation something other thanitself. This requirement is met by the six cooking apples in the preceding sentence. The presupposition, and the fact that it is resolved, provide cohesion between the two sentences, and in so doing create text.
Page 5
The cohesion is expressed in one, two, three, etc ties. It is also a semantic concept.
Cohesion is expressed through the strata organization of language. Language can be explainedas a multiple coding system comprising three levels of coding, or strata:
* The semantic (meanings)
* The lexicogrammatical (forms)
* Phonological and orthographic (expressions)
Cohesion is expressed partly through the grammar and partly through the vocabulary. We can refer therefore to GRAMMATICAL COHESION and LEXICAL COHESION.
Page 6 and 7
Cohesion is a semantic relation, not astructural unit. Structure is of course a unifying relation. The parts of a sentence cohere with each other by virtue of structure. Because of this, structure is one means of expressing texture. But because a text is not usually limited to a sentence, but consists of more than one, cohesion depends on something else than structure. There are certain non-structural text-forming relations and it...
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