Grammar open classes and and closed classes

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1. INTRODUCTION

Traditional grammar classifies words based on two groups, commonly called open classes and closed classes. Of these traditional parts of speech, the noun, verb, adjective and adverb are open classes, while the pronoun, preposition, conjunction and interjection are closed. The open classes are named so because they admit new items and it is relatively easy to create new words,while the closed classes are called so since it is less common (though not impossible) for speakers of a language to create new vocabulary in those categories. It is a word class to which no new items can normally be added, and that usually contains a relatively small number of items.

2. OPEN CLASSES
NOUNS
A noun is a word used to name a person, animal, place, thing, and abstract idea.Noun formation: Nouns are not usually identifiable by their form. There is several ways to formate nouns. Some suffixes can be added to verbs and adjectives to form nouns: sad → sadness, feel → feeling...By prefixation and compounding new nouns also can be formed: newspaper, unselfish...Nouns can be formed by conversion that can occur from verbs to nouns: an interesting play, a difficultdance...
Types of Nouns: Grammarians have developed a whole series of noun types, including: Countable nouns and non-countable nouns. Some things are considered as units which can be counted and other things as indivisible wholes (a cat-cats versus milk, money...). Also English nouns differ: common nouns (e.g. chair, pencil) versus proper names (e.g. John, Paris); concrete nouns (book) versusabstract nouns (chilhood, love).
Noun plurals: Most nouns change their form to indicate number. Plural forms usually can be distinguished by adding different inflectional endings "-s" or "-es" house/houses, window, windows. Some words ending in "f" form the plural by deleting "f" and adding "ves," (wolf, wolves). Also nouns derived from foreign words or those which reflect Old English have irregularplurals (tooth teeth).
Noun gender: In general there is no distinction between masculine, feminine and neuter in English nouns. However, gender is sometimes shown by different forms (actor-actress) or different words (man-woman). Some nouns can be used for either a masculine or a feminine subject (friend, leader).
Syntactic characteristics: When a noun is head of a subject noun phrase, it agreesin person and number with the tensed verb of the clause: His stories were listened. Also they may be...
→ ...preceded by determiners: the car.
→ ...modified by adjectives: a big mouth.
→ ...premodified by other nouns: a university degree.

VERBS
A verb express actions, events, or states of being. For example, read, dance, cry.
Verb formation: Most verbs are not identificable by their form.Some of them are recognised from their endings. They can be formed by prefixation, the most common prefixes used woth verbs are: un-read-unreadable, out-door-outdoor, over-board-overboard, under-world-underworld. They also can be formed by conversion from other words classes: Verbs related to nouns: to position a table. Verbs related to adjectives: to calm someone.
Verb types: There are three maingrammatical classes of verb:
Lexical verbs: They are an open class so new verbs are usually created. They include most verbs and denote types of action, state or event (e.g. play, feel, work).
Auxiliary verbs: They are a closed class. The most common auxiliary verbs are be, do and have. They add information to the lexical verb, indicating clause type, aspect and passive voice.
Modal verbs:They are a closed class divided into modal verbs (can, could, shall, should, will, would, must, might, may), semi-modal verbs (dare, need, ought to, used to) and modal expressions (be able to, have (got) to).. They add information to the lexical verb and they do not inflect for person, tense or number.

Regular verbs: The regular form simply adds inflections to the base form without internal...
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