When a verb ends in -ing, it may be a gerund or a present participle. It is important to understand that they are not the same.
Gerunds can be the subject, object or complement of a sentence:
|GERUND AS SUBJECT |
|A gerund always ends in ing is used as a noun|
|Fishing |is fun. |
|Singing |is my passion |
|GERUNDS AS SUBJECT COMPLEMENT|
|Ricardo’s first love is singing. |
|singing = subject complement of the verb is |
|GERUND AS OBJECT|
|Mario enjoys playing soccer more than spending time with his girlfriend Marie. |
|Playing soccer = direct object of the verb enjoys. |
|Francisco gives swimming all of his energy andtime. |
|Swimming = indirect object of the verb gives |
|GERUNDS AFTER PREPOSITIONS |
|This is a good rule. It has no exceptions!.When we want to use a verb after a preposition, it must be a gerund. |
|Alicia is in favor of eating vegetable |
|eating = object of the preposition of.|
*Gerunds could be replaced by “real” nouns
I am looking forward to going out with you
I am looking forward to our vacations.
|GERUNDS AFTER CERTAIN VERBS |
|Sometimes one verb is used after another verb.It must be in gerund form. |
|I dislike running. |
This depends on the first verb. Here is a list ofverbs that are usually followed by a verb in gerund form:
• admit, appreciate, avoid, carry on, consider, defer, delay, deny, detest, dislike, endure, enjoy, escape, excuse, face, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, can't help, imagine, involve, leave off, mention, mind, miss, postpone, practice, put off, report, resent, risk, can't stand, suggest, understand
Look at these examples:
•She is considering having a holiday.
• I enjoy talking with you all the time
Some verbs can be followed by the gerund form or the infinitive form without a big change in meaning: begin, continue, hate, intend, like, love, prefer, propose, start
• I like to play tennis.
• I like playing tennis.
• It started to rain.
• It started raining
|GERUNDS AS APPOSITIVE...