Guadalajara

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The city was established in three other places before where it is now. Thefirst settlement in 1532 was in Mesa del Cerro, now known as San Juan. This site was settled by Juan de Oñate as commissioned by Nuño de Guzmán. The purpose of the city was to secure the recentconquests made and to provide defense against still-hostile natives. This site did not last long due to the lack of water, so in 1533, it was moved to a location near Tonalá. Two years later, Guzmán orderedthat the village be moved to Tlacotán. While the settlement was here, Spanish king Charles V granted the coat of arms the city has today.[6]
This settlement was ferociously attacked during the MixtónWar in 1541, by Caxcan, Portecuex and Zacateco peoples under the command of Tenamaxtli.[6] This war was initiated by the Indians due to the cruel treatment of Indians by Nuño de Guzmán, especially theenslavement of captured natives. Viceroy Antonio de Mendoza had to take control of the campaign to suppress the revolt after the Spanish were defeated in several engagements. The conflict ended afterMendoza made some concessions to the Indians, including the freeing of Indian slaves and amnesty.[8] The village of Guadalajara barely survived, and credit was given to the aid requested from theArchangel Michael, who remains as patron of the city. It was then decided to move the city once again, this time to Atemajac, as it was more defensible. The city has remained here to this day. In 1542,records indicate that 126 people were living in Guadalajara, and in the same year, the status of city was conferred by the Spanish king. The settlement's name came from the Spanish hometown of Nuño deGuzmán.[6]
In 1560, royal offices for the province of Nueva Galicia were moved from Compostela to Guadalajara, as well as the bishopric. Construction of the cathedral was begun in 1561. In 1570,...
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