Helicobacter

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CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY REVIEWS, July 2006, p. 449–490 0893-8512/06/$08.00 0 doi:10.1128/CMR.00054-05 Copyright © 2006, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Vol. 19, No. 3

Pathogenesis of Helicobacter pylori Infection
Johannes G. Kusters,* Arnoud H. M. van Vliet, and Ernst J. Kuipers
Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Erasmus MC—University Medical Center,Rotterdam, The Netherlands INTRODUCTION .......................................................................................................................................................450 HISTORY.....................................................................................................................................................................450 MICROBIOLOGY......................................................................................................................................................451 Genus Description and Phylogeny........................................................................................................................451 Gastric Helicobacter species...............................................................................................................................451 (i) Helicobacter felis .........................................................................................................................................451 (ii) Helicobacter mustelae ................................................................................................................................451 (iii) Helicobacteracinonychis ..........................................................................................................................452 (iv) Helicobacter heilmannii ............................................................................................................................452 Enterohepatic Helicobacter species...................................................................................................................452 Microbiology of H. pylori........................................................................................................................................453 Genome, plasmids, and strain diversity ..........................................................................................................453 Morphology..........................................................................................................................................................453 Growth requirements..........................................................................................................................................453 Metabolism..........................................................................................................................................................454 (i) Respiration and oxidative stress defense...............................................................................................454 (ii) Nitrogen metabolism................................................................................................................................454 (iii) Metal metabolism...................................................................................................................................455 Cell envelope, outer membrane, and LPS .......................................................................................................456 Gene regulation...................................................................................................................................................457 EPIDEMIOLOGY .......................................................................................................................................................457 Prevalence and Geographical Distribution .........................................................................................................457 Transmission and Sources of Infection...
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