Rise and decline of the modern Empires in China
The Mongol interlude started after the Sung era. It was considered the largest empire created. The Mongol interlude was called the Yüan dynasty ruled by Kublai, who had never considered himself a Chinese but ruled as a Chinese Emperor. Kublai continue the Sungdynasty policies and was concerned too about the age scholars, orphans and the distribution of food among the poor.
The Mongol empire managed to facilitate travelling and commerce, he repaired and enlarged the Grand Canal which connected the South and the North. The Chinese where not able to work in the high office and the merchants were controlled. These made the Chinese see the invaders asbarbarians. Although under Kublai dynasty the Mongol empire became stronger it failed to conquer Japan bringing many deaths of the Chinese and Koreans.
After Kublai, the Mongol Empire became fragmented and men with high political abilities never controlled the throne.
In 1368 the Ming dynasty came into power becoming into a pure Chinese regime and was a prosperous one. It increased the wealthand building undertaken by the state and private initiative.
At the times of Ming dynasty in the power, art and literature flourished as well as the development of the government. Even though the Ming dynasty brought many positive changes it did not achieved more than under the Han and T’ang dynasty.
The Ming Empire was considered institutionally and culturally conservative and wasable to maintain the throne during 30 years. The Ming’s was based as well as the Mongol empire in classic Confucianism. The death of the first Ming Empire followed by four years of civil strife and the power was taken over by the son, a monarch who reached its apex and established in Peking.
This third Monarch was important as he had an aggressive foreign policy and sent military expeditions,occupying Annam and tribal chiefs of Burma. There were also naval expeditions to the South and South East, such as Cochin-China, Java, Sumatra, Cambodia, among others.
The population increase dramatically and changes occurred because of the prominence of Neo-Confucianism thought growing t that times.
Other important characteristics of the Empire were that they renewed therelations with Western countries. In 1514, Portuguese traders reached the China cost acquiring Macao. America was recently discovered therefore the silver which entered from Mexico as a new trend to a money economy. The propagation of Christianity through Macao as well as from Manila had brought new types of religions to China.
The Ming dynasty was interrupted by the invasion of the Manchu fromthe North and conquered the Middle Kingdom. Population in that times increased more than in any other decade before.
The Manchu empire continued with the Ming laws and institutions. One of the characteristics of the Manchu was that they made the Chinese shave therefore part of the heads and grows queues, which represented liberation.
K’ang Hsi, took the throne when he was only seven, and eventhough he was a minor he proved to be one of the strongest monarchs in China along history. During the beginning of K’ang’s kingdom the contact between the Europeans and the Chinese increased. In 1685 the troops took Albazin, a Russian foothold, and after that they signed a treaty, which became the first between China and a European power.
K’ang His fought to abolish the Chinesecostume to binding women’s feet, he improved the exchange rate, decreased taxes, promote honesty and efficiency in bureaucracies and subsidized scholarship. He maintained the civil service examination and encouraged Confucianism morality and discouraged Buddhism, Christianity and Taoism.
Ch’ien Lung was the grandson of the first Monarch; under his Empire it reached its apex. In the southwest and...