Let's start off with the easy part. ' I wish to' can mean the same as 'I want to' but it is much, much more formal and much, much less common.
• I wish to make a complaint.
• I wish to see the manager.
You can also use 'wish' with a noun to 'offer good wishes'.
• We wish you a merry Christmas.
• I wish you all the best in your new job.
Notice that when you want tooffer good wishes using a verb, you must use 'hope ' and not 'wish'.
• We wish you the best of luck.
• We hope you have the best of luck.
• I wish you a safe and pleasant journey.
• I hope you have a safe and pleasant journey.
However, the main use of 'wish' is to say that we would like things to be different from what they are, that we have regrets about the present situation.• I wish I was rich.
• He wishes he lived in Paris.
• They wish they'd chosen a different leader.
Notice that the verb tense which follows 'I wish' is 'more in the past' than the tense corresponding to its meaning.
• I'm too fat. I wish I was thin.
• I never get invited to parties. I wish I got invited to parties.
• It's raining. I wish it wasn't raining.
• I wentto see the latest Star Wars film. I wish I hadn't gone.
• I've eaten too much. I wish I hadn't eaten so much.
• I'm going to visit her later. I wish I wasn't going to visit her later.
In the case of 'will' , where 'will' means 'show willingness' we use 'would'.
• He won't help me. I wish he would help me.
• You're making too much noise. I wish you would be quiet.
• Youkeep interrupting me. I wish you wouldn't do that.
Where 'will' means a future event, we cannot use 'wish' and must use 'hope'.
• There's a strike tomorrow. I hope some buses will still be running
• I hope everything will be fine in your new job.
In more formal English, we use the subjunctive form 'were' and not 'was' after 'wish'.
• I wish I were taller.
• I wish it wereSaturday today.
• I wish the options were a little clearer.
Determiners are used in front of nouns to indicate whether you are referring to something specific or something of a particular type.
Determiners are different to pronouns in that a determiner is always followed by a noun. Therefore personal pronouns (I, you, he, etc.) and possessive pronouns (mine, yours, his, etc.)cannot be determiners.
The definite and indefinite articles a/an/the are all determiners.
You use a specific determiner when people know exactly which thing(s) or person/people you are talking about.
The specific determiners are:
|the definite article : the |
|demonstratives : this, that, these, those |
|possessives : my, your, his, her, its, our, their |
"The dog barked at the boy."
"These apples arerotten."
"Their bus was late."
You use general determiners to talk about people or things without saying exactly who or what they are.
The general determiners are:
|the indefinite articles : a, an |
|a few |