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Republica Bolivariana de Venezuela
Ministerio del poder popular para la Educacacion Superior
Aldea Juan Vicente Bolivar
Universidad Bolivariana de Venezuela
Santa Barbara Edo. Monagas.




1.- Defining relative clauses
Defining relative clauses give information to be clear that both you and the person you aretalking with know exactly who or what it is you are talking about. They give essential information (Note that that can replace who or which).
Imagine there are now two girls talking to Charles, but you don’t know one of them and you want to ask your friend if he does, how do we differentiate between them?  Perhaps you could look at what they are wearing.  The unknown girl has a red dress on, sowe would say :“ Do you know the girl that is wearing the red dress?”. If further clarification is needed: “The one wearing the red dress who is talking to Charles”.
Now you and your friend are absolutely clear who it is you are talking about. The girl is defined through the extra attributed given to her, without these, it would be unclear which girl we were talking about.
Defining relativeclauses do not give extra information, so they are not put into commas.
Defining relative clauses are often used in definitions, as in: A miner is someone whoworks in a mine.
Object pronouns (who, which or that) in defining relative pronouns can usually be dropped from the sentence without a change in meaning. For example: The girl (who/whom) I met last night was very pretty.
  Non-defining relativeclauses
In a non-defining relative clause, extra information is given about a subject, but it is not necessary to make the subject of the sentence clear. They give non-essential information. They are put into commas (or pauses in spoken English).
If there is only Charles and one girl in the room talking, then it is not necessary to add in extra information about her.  We would simply say:
Doyou know the girl, who is talking to Charles?”
In non-defining relative clauses, who/whom cannot be replaced with that:  Jill,who/whom I went out with last week, is a fully trained nurse.
Object pronouns cannot be removed from non-defining relative clauses: The girl,who/whom I met last night, is very prettyWe use relative clauses to give additional information about something without startinganother sentence. By combining sentences with a relative clause, your text becomes more fluent and you can avoid repeating certain words.How to Form Relative Clauses Level 2Imagine, a girl is talking to Tom. You want to know who she is and ask a friend whether he knows her. You could say:

A girl is talking to Tom. Do you know the girl?
That sounds rather complicated, doesn't it? It would be easierwith a relative clause: you put both pieces of information into one sentence. Start with the most important thing  – you want to know who the girl is.
Do you know the girl …
As your friend cannot know which girl you are talking about, you need to put in the additional information  – the girl is talking to Tom. Use „the girl“ only in the first part of the sentence, in the second part replace itwith the relative pronoun (for people, use the relative pronoun „who“). So the final sentence is:
Do you know the girl who is talking to Tom?
Relative Pronouns Level 2 relative pronoun | use | example |
who | subject or object pronoun for people | I told you about the woman who lives next door. |
which | subject or object pronoun for animals and things | Doyou see the cat which is lying on the roof? |
which | referring to a whole sentence | He couldn’t read which surprised me. |
whose | possession for people animals and things | Do you know the boy whose mother is a nurse? |
whom | object pronoun for people, especially in non-defining relative clauses (in defining relative clauses we colloquially prefer who)...
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